Published: 2018-01-23

An epidemiological study to assess bone mineral density and its association with contributing factors among premenopausal and postmenopausal women in selected villages of District Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India

Nancy Garg, Viji Mol G., Deepika Sethi


Background: Development of peak bone mass and premenopausal bone loss is determined by the menstrual status of women. Decline in bone mass with age becomes accelerated during menopause. Menopausal bone loss refers to the accelerated bone loss that occurs during the BM) of premenopausal and post-menopausal women, to identify the contributing factors associated with BMD among pre and post-menopausal women, to compare the level of BMD and the contributing factors of pre-menopausal women with post-menopausal women.

Methods: It was quantative research approach and epidemiological analytic research design was used. Total enumeration technique was adopted in this study.

Results: Analysis of data was done in accordance with the objectives of the study. Findings show that among premenopausal women 45.10% of the women had osteopenia and 8.20% of the women had osteoporosis, among postmenopausal women 50.00% of the women had oestriopenic and 41.2% of the women had osteoporosis. The analysis shows that factors such as BMI, Health status, life style, age, economic status and dietary patter plays important role to accelerate the level of T-score more than -1 in both group either premenopausal women or post-menopausal women. It shows the significance at the level of p<0.001.

Conclusions: The study was completed in July 2016, concludes that there are many factors that can lead to have risk of osteoporosis related fracture. As age is increased the risk is also increased to get the fracture. Every woman can go for screening of BMD test to control the risk of fracture.


BMD, BMI, Osteopenia, Osteoporosis, Premenopausal women, Postmenopausal women

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