Causes of stillbirth according to different gestational ages
Keywords:Hypertensive disorders, Perinatal mortality rate, Stillbirth rate
Background: Stillbirth is one of the most common yet the most poorly studied adverse outcome of pregnancy. Objective of present study was to determine the risk factors and prevalence of stillbirth at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kamla Nehru State Hospital, for Mother and Child, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh.
Methods: A prospective non-interventional study was conducted with effect from 1st August 2015 to 31st July 2016, during which all the intrapartum and antepartum stillbirths were enrolled.
Results: During the study period total number of stillbirth were 94 and the total number of live births were 6412, giving a stillbirth rate of 14.66/1000 live births. The perinatal mortality was 22.1/1000 births. The most common cause of stillbirth as revealed in the study was hypertensive disorder.
Conclusions: The stillbirth rate in the study was higher than the stillbirth rate of developed countries. Improvement of socioeconomic conditions, literacy and health education among women will definitely be important to curb the staggeringly high stillbirth rate, but the need of the hour is to deploy adequate number of dedicated skilled providers.
Mondal D, Galloway TS, Bailey TC, Mathews F. Elevated risk of still birth in males: systematic review and meta-analysis of more than 30 million births. BMC Medicine. 2014;12(220):1741-55.
Robalo R, Pedroso C, Amaral N, Soares C. Late Stillbirth: a ten year cohort study. Acts Med Port. 2013;26(1):39-42.
Bring HS, Varli IAH, Kublickas M, Papadogiannakis N, Petersson K. Causes of stillbirth at different gestational ages in singleton pregnancies. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2014 Jan;93(1): 86-92.
Gordon A, Greenow C R, McGeechan K, Morris J, Jeffery H. Risk factors for antepartum stillbirth and the influence of maternal age in New South Wales Australia: A population based study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13(12):1471-81.
Bhattacharya S, Mukhopadhya G, Mistry P K, Pati S, Saha SP. Stillbirth in a tertiary care Referral Hospital in North Bengal: a review of causes, risk factors and prevention strategies, Online J Health Allied Sci. 2010;9(4):4.
Avachat SS, Phalke DB, Phalke VD. Risk factors associated with stillbirths in the rural areas of Western Maharashtra, India. Arch Med Health Sci. 2015;2(3):56-59.
Bhati DK. Stillbirths: A high magnitude public health issue in India. South East Asia J Public Health. 2013;3(1):3-9.
Nayak SR, Garg N. Determinants of antepartum fetal death. J Obstet Gynecol India. 2010;60(6): 494-97.
Vergani P, Cozzolino S, Pozzi E, Cuttin MS, Greco M, Ornaghi S et al. Identifying the causes of stillbirth: a comparison of four classification systems. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199(31):1-4.
Fox NS, Rebarber A, Silverstein M, Roman AS, Klauser CK, Saltzman DH. The effectiveness of antepartum surveillance in reducing the risk of stillbirth in patients with advanced maternal age. Euro J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013;170(13):387-90.
Reime B, Lindwedel U, Ertl KM, Jacob C, Schücking B, Wenzlaff P. Does under utilisation of prenatal care explain the excess risk for stillbirth among women with migration background in Germany. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologia. 2009;88(10):1276-83.
Saastad E, Vangen S, Froen F. Suboptimal care in stillbirths- a retrospective audit study. Acts Obsetricia et Gynecologia. 2007;86(9):444-50.
Lehra MM, Gordon A, Jeffery HE. Chorioamniotis and fetal response in stillbirth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;196(229):1-4.
Mustufa MA. Frequency of stillbirths in a Tertiary care hospital of Karachi. Pak J Med Sci. 2016;32(1):91-4.
Choudhary A, Gupta V: Epidemiology of intrauterine fetal deaths: a study in tertiary care referral centre in Uttarakhand. IOSR-JDMS. 2014;13(3):3-6.
Fretts RC. Etiology and prevention of stillbirth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193(4):1923-35.
Goldenberg RL, Kirby R, Culhane JF. Stillbirth: a review. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2004;16(3):79-94.