DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20181358

Study of risk factors and tumor markers in ovarian malignancy in western part of Odisha: a prospective observational study

Hemanta Kumar Pradhan, Pratibha Singh, M. S. Ravikumar, Meenakshi Gothwal

Abstract


Background: Ovarian cancer represents one of the most frequently seen malignancies in women and it is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death in women. The aim of the study to determine the risk factors leading to ovarian cancer in western part of Odisha, India and show the tumour markers in this population.

Methods: This is a prospective observational study included 240 ovarian masses diagnosed at Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, V. S. S. Medical College, Burla, Sambalpur over 3 years based on preoperative clinical, biochemical (tumour markers) and imaging study and confirm through post-operative histopathology reports.

Results: Surface epithelial tumours (68.33%) followed by germ cell tumours (30.83%) are the most common ovarian tumour. Incidence of ovarian cancer is 73.58% in ≤50 years of age group and more number of cases (16.65%) also found in younger age (≤30 year). Overall number of ovarian cancer cases rising. Bilateral tubal ligation is not a protective factor for ovarian cancer (p value >0.05) and consumption of alcohol and tobacco is not increase risk for ovarian cancer. Most of ovarian tumour commonly present with vague abdominal pain (75.83%) followed by mass per abdomen (55%). Ascites mainly a presentation of malignant tumour seen in 46(63.88%) cases. CA125 is the frequently detected tumour markers and all of the tumour markers were significantly within normal limit.

Conclusions: Ovarian neoplasia is one of the most common and lethal malignancy in female reproductive tract. Though it is a disease of older age but now a day more no of cases also seen in younger age group. Since most of the ovarian cancer remain asymptomatic for long period so measure should be taken for early diagnosis for best outcome. So, assessment of each regions statistical information reflecting its own profile may be important for estimation of risk for development of ovarian cancer and so useful for early preventive measure before progress to advance stage where prognosis is worst. So, relationship between the profiles of patients and types of ovarian neoplasms may give an idea about the risk factors of the disease in its region. Additionally, distribution of tumour markers might be considered for the dis-criminating of the benign or malign characters of the ovarian neoplasia.


Keywords


Fetal malignancy distress, Hypertension ovarian in pregnancy, Risk factors stillbirths, Tumour markers

Full Text:

PDF

References


Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Murray T, Xu J, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics 2007. CA Cancer J Clin. 2007;57(1):43-66.

Wang K, Li Y, Jiang YZ, Dai CF, Patankar MS, Song JS, et al. An endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand inhibits proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2013;340(1):63-71.

Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Estimating the world cancer burden: GLOBOCAN 2000. Int J Cancer. 2001;94:153-6.

Murthy NS, Shalini S, Suman G, Pruthvish S, Mathew A. Changing trends in incidence of ovarian cancer: the Indian scenario. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2009;10:1025-30.

Sturgeon CM, Lai LC, Duffy MJ. Serum tumour markers: how to order and interpret them. BMJ. 2009;339:b3527.

Scully RE. Histological classification of ovarian tumours. In: Scully RE, editor. Ovarian Tumors. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1999:100-120.

Gupta N, Bisht D, Agarwal AK, Sharma VK. Retrospective and prospective study of ovarian tumours and tumour-like lesions. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2007;50:525-7.

Khan AA, Luqman M, Jamal S, Mamoon N, Mushtaq S. Clinico pathological analysis of Ovaria tumors. Pak J Pathol. 2005;16:28-32.

Rettenmaier MA, Lopez K, Abaid LN, Brown JV, Micha JP, Goldstein BH. Borderline ovarian tumors and extended patient follow-up: An individual institution’s experience. J Surg Oncol. 2010;101:18-21.

Jha R, Karki S. Histological pattern of ovarian tumors and their age distribution. Nepal Med Coll J. 2008;10:81-5.

Murthy NS, Shalini S, Suman G, Pruthvish S, Mathew A. Changing trends in incidence of ovarian cancer - the Indian scenario. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2009;10:1025-30.

Yancik R. Ovarian cancer. Age contrasts in incidence, histology, disease stage at diagnosis, and mortality. Cancer. 1993;71(2):517-23.

Quirk JT, Natarajan N. Ovarian cancer incidence in the United States, 1992-99. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;97:519-23.

Riman T, Dickman PW, Nisson S. Risk factors for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer: results from Swedish sasesontrol study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:363-73.

Danforth KN, Tworoger SS, Hecht JL. Prospective study of postmenopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk. Br J Cancer. 2007;96:151-6.

Marchbanks PA, Wilson H, Bastos E. Cigarette smoking and epithelial ovarian cancer by histologic type. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95:255-60.

Modugno F, Ness RB, Cottreau CM. Cigarette smoking and the risk of mucinous and nonmucinous epithelial ovarian cancer. Epidemiol. 2002;13:467-71.

Zhang Y, Coogan PF, Palmer JR. Cigarette smoking and increased risk of mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159:133-9.

Goodman MT, Tung KH. Active and passive tobacco smoking and the risk of borderline and invasive ovarian cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2003;14:569-77.

Tworoger SS, Gertig DM, Gates MA. Caffeine, alcohol, smoking, and the risk of incident epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer. 2008;112:1169-77.

Nandakumar A, Anantha N, Dhar M. A case-control investigation on cancer of the ovary in Bangalore, India. Int J Cancer. 1995;63:361-5.

Yogambal M, Arunalatha P, Chandramouleeswari K, Palaniappan V. Ovarian tumours: incidence and distribution in a tertiary referral center in South India. IOSR. 2014;13(2):74-80.

Bast RC Jr, Klug TL, St John E. A radioimmunoassay using a monoclonal antibody to monitor the course of epithelial ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med. 1983;309:883Y887.

Duffy MJ, Bonfrer JM, Kulpa J. CA125 in ovarian cancer: European group on tumor markers guidelines for clinical use. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2005;15:679Y691.

Kelly PJ, Archbold P, Price JH. Serum CA19.9 levels are commonly elevated in primary ovarian mucinous tumours but cannot be used to predict the histological subtype. J Clin Pathol. 2010;63:169Y173.

Sturgeon CM, Duffy MJ, Stenman UH. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry laboratory medicine practice guidelines for use of tumor markers in testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancers. Clin Chem. 2008;54:e11Ye79.

Høgdall EV, Christensen L, Kjaer SK. Protein expression levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in Danish ovarian cancer patients: from the Danish ‘MALOVA’ ovarian cancer study. Pathol. 2008;40:487Y492.

Ahmad Z, Kayani N, Hasan SH, Muzaffar S, Gill MS. Histological pattern of ovarian neoplasma. J Pak Med Assoc. 2000;50:416-9.

Topuz S, Iyibozkurt AC, Akhan SE, Keskin N, Yavuz E, Salihoglu Y, et al. Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary: a review of 41 cases and risk factors for recurrence. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2008;29:635-7.

Gadducci A, Sartori E, Maggino T, Zola P, Landoni F, Fanucchi A, et al. Analysis of failures after negative second-look in patients with advanced ovarian cancer: an Italian multicenter study. Gynecol Oncol. 1998;68:150-5.

Matte I, Lane D, Laplante C, Rancourt C, Piche A. Profiling of cytokines in human epithelial ovarian cancer ascites. Am J Cancer Res. 2012;2:566-80.

Basu P, De P, Mandal S, Ray K, Biswas J. Study of 'patterns of care' of ovarian cancer patients in a specialized cancer institute in Kolkata, Eastern India. Indian J Cancer. 2009;46:28-33.

Saini SK, Shrivastava S, Singh Y, Dixit AK, Prasad SN. Epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer, a single institution-based study in India. Clin Cancer Investig J. 2016;5:20-4.

Mondal SK, Banyopadhyay R, Nag DR, Roychowdhury S, Mondal PK, Sinha SK. Histologic pattern, bilaterality and clinical evaluation of 957 ovarian neoplasms: a 10-year study in a tertiary hospital of eastern India. J Can Res Ther. 2011;7:433-7.

Doufekas K, Olaitan A. Clinical epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer in the UK. Int J Women’s Health, 2014;6:537-45.