Study of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding birth spacing and methods available for spacing in rural Haryana, India
Keywords:Attitude, Birth spacing, Contraception, Family planning, Knowledge, Practice
Background: Birth spacing is defined as the time interval between two births. India has average birth spacing of 22 months, i.e. little less than two years, despite wide knowledge of contraception. Objective of present study was to investigate the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding birth spacing and methods available for spacing in rural Haryana amongst sexually active married females of reproductive age.
Methods: Cross sectional study of 500 sexually active, married females of reproductive age with at least one live issue and not meeting any exclusion criteria was carried at SGT medical college, Gurgaon during 3 months from August 2017.
Results: Awareness of need for birth spacing was very high (82.6%) in females interviewed, with 70% of females being aware of birth spacing benefits as well as keen to opt for birth spacing but even higher count of females (92.6%) reporting requiring husband’s consent for birth spacing. Only 40% females were practising birth spacing with 14.6% of females reporting in-law’s opposition as reason for not practising birth spacing.
Conclusions: Education is a major factor improving awareness of need as well as benefits of child spacing, with all college studied females being aware of both. Education also leads to improvement in keenness for practising child spacing as well as having lesser opposition to practise of child birthing. Females with only girl child/children were less keen to practise child spacing. Rural geographies still have health personnel as significant source imparting awareness of child spacing.
MacQuarrie K. Marriage and fertility dynamics: the influence of marriage age on the timing of first birth and birth-spacing. Rockville, MD: ICF International. 2016. Report No.: 56.
Chandna A, Mittal R, Sood A, Sood P. Inter-pregnancy interval and pregnancy outcome. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2016;5:415-8.
World Health Organization. Report of a WHO Technical Consultation on Birth Spacing. Department of Reproductive Health and Research. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005. Available at http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/69855/1/WHO_RHR_07.1_eng.pdf. Accessed 17 July 2017.
Conde-Agudelo A, Rosas-Bermúdez A, Kafury-Goeta AC. Birth spacing and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2006;295(15):1809-23.
Patel A, Pawani C, Patel R. Awareness and acceptance of contraceptive methods among post-partum patients. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Jan; 5(1):206-9.
Nayak AU, Ramakrishnan KG, Venkateswar KN, Vijayshree M. Assessing the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception in rural India: a necessary step in achieving population control. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Jul 26;6(8):3328-31.
Kanojia JK, Nirbhavane NC, Toddywala VS, Betrabet SS, Patel SB, Datte S et al. Dynamics of contraceptive practice amongst urban Indian women. Natl Med J India 1996;9:109-12.
NHM Health Statistics Information Portal. Data for Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR), Maternal Mortality Rate and Life Time Risk; [Data file]. National Health Mission: Delhi; 2017. Available at https://nrhm-mis.nic.in/Home%20Page%20Lib/MMR_Bulletin_2011-13.xls . Accessed 17 Jul 2017.
Government of India. Data for State-wise Per Capita Income and Gross Domestic Product at current prices. [Data file] Press Bureau of India: Delhi; 2014. Available at: http://pib.nic.in/archieve/others/2014/aug/d2014070801.pdf. Accessed 17 Jul 2017.
Matthews Z, Padmadas SS, Hutter I, McEachran J, Brown JJ. Does early childbearing and a sterilization-focused family planning programme in India fuel population growth? Demographic Research. 2009;20:693-720.
Srivastava R, Srivastava DK, Jina R, Srivastava K, Sharma N, Sana S. Contraceptive knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP Survey). J Obstet Gynecol India. 2005 Nov;55(6):546-50.
Fayehun OA, Omololu OO, Isiugo-Abanihe UC. Sex of preceding child and birth spacing among Nigerian ethnic groups. Afr J Reprod Health. 2011 Jun;15(2):79-89.