Published: 2018-05-26

A clinical study of postpartum depression and its association with postnatal factors

Poonam Mathur, Rahul Mathur, Archana Singh


Background: The postpartum period is a time of tremendous emotional and physical change for most women as they adapt to new roles and alteration in their physiology. Postpartum depression has seen its rise lately. Multiple factors might be responsible for causation. Symptoms include depression, tearfulness, emotional liability, guilt, anorexia, sleep disorders, feeling inadequate, detachment from the baby, poor concentration, forgetfulness, fatigue, and irritability.

Methods: We have conducted a study in 225 postpartum females and assessed them for depression and associated postnatal depression. The 10-question Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used for assessing depression.

Results: Depression was evaluated as 6%. It was also found that 2% mothers with IUD babies developed postnatal depression. 1.33% cases with babies having congenital anomaly developed postnatal depression. 1.33% cases with babies having nursery admission developed postnatal depression.  This has been correlated with many other studies.

Conclusions: It is found that perinatal factors do affect postnatal depression as it is found in mothers who have an adverse perinatal outcome. Further research is implicated in this field.


Physiology, Perinatal factors, Postpartum depression

Full Text:



Barnet, B., Duggan, A.K., Wilson, M.D., & Joffe, A. (1995). Association between postpartum substance use and depressive symptoms, stress, and social support in adolescent mothers. Pediatr, 1995;96(4), 659-66.

Berggren-Clive, K. Out of the darkness and into the light: Women’s experiences with depression after childbirth. Canadian J Commun Mental Health. 1998;17;(1):103-20.

Bewley, C. Postnatal depression. Nursing Stand. 1999;13(16):49-56.

Borrill J. Detecting and preventing postnatal depression. Commun Nurse. 1998;4(3):19-20.

Bagedahl-Strindlund, M. and Monsen, B.K.. Postnatal depression: A hidden illness. Acta Psychiat Scandin. 1998;98:272-5.

Coral, M., Kuan, A., & Kostaras, D.. Bright light therapy’s effect on postpartum depression. [Letter to the editor] American Journal of Psychiatry, 2000;157 (2),303-4.

O’Hara MW. Postpartum depression: causes and consequences. New York; Springer-verlag, 1995.

Cox JL, Holden JM, and Sagovsky R.. Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British J Psychiatr, 1987;150:782-6.

Dennis, C-L. & Kavanagh, J. (2002). Psychosocial interventions for prevention postpartum depression BMJ. 2005;331(7507):15.

Elliot SA, Leverton TJ, Sanjack M, Turner H, Cowmeadow P, Hopkins J, and Bushnell D. (2000). Promoting mental health after childbirth: A controlled trial of primary prevention of postnatal depression. Brit J Clini Psychol.2000;39,223-41.

Epperson, N., Czarkowski, K.A., Ward-O’Brien, D., Weiss, E., Gueorguieva, R., Jatlow, P., & Anerson, G.M. (2001). Maternal sertaline treatment and serotonin transport in breast-feeding mother-infant pairs. American J Psychia, 158(10),1631-7.

Field, T., Grizzle, N., Scafidi, F., & Schanberg, S. (1996). Massage and relaxation therapies, effects on depressed adolescent mothers. Adolescence, 34 (124),904-11.

Hayes, M.J., Roberts, S., and Davare, A. (2000). Transactional conflict between psychobiology and culture in the etiology of postpartum depression. Medical Hypothes. 2000:55(3);266-76.