Published: 2018-06-27

Study of prevalence of anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal checkup in a rural teaching hospital in Telangana, India

Shridevi .


Background: Anemia during pregnancy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women in developing countries and has both maternal and fetal consequences. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal checkup in a rural teaching hospital in Telangana.

Methods: It is a hospital based cross-sectional observational study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Maheshwara Medical College and Hospital, Telangana for duration of two years from March 2016 to April 2018. A total of 600 cases were studied and screened. Prevalence of anemia was calculated. Anemia was classified morphologically based on peripheral smear findings and classified as microcytic hypochromic, macrocytic, dimorphic anemia, normocytic normochromic anemia and normocytic hypochromic anemia. Based on hemoglobin values anemia was classified into mild, moderate, and severe anemia.

Results: Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy in rural Telangana was about 20%. Age-wise, majority (58.3%) of the patients were between 21 to 25 years. Gravida more than 2 were more 66.6% (400/600) when compared to lower parity. Among 600 cases, 140 pregnant women (23.3%) suffered with mild anemia, 340 cases (56.6%) with moderate anemia and 20% with severe anaemia. Morphologically, microcytic hypochromic type i.e., iron deficiency anaemia was the most common.

Conclusions: Anemia in pregnancy in rural Telangana is quite high and was found to be 20% in routine antenatal outpatient cases. Multiple pregnancies and low level of education indirectly contribute to anemia of pregnancy. Education and awareness about anemia in pregnancy can lead to better fetal and maternal outcomes.


Anemia in pregnancy, Educational status in pregnant women, Hemoglobin estimation

Full Text:



World Health Organization (2008) World-wide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005. WHO, Geneva.

World Health Organization (1992). TНe prevalence of anaemia in women: a tabulation of available information, Geneva.

Wiwanitkit V. Introduction to tropical anemia. Tropical Anaemia. Nova Science Publishers. New York. 2007;1:1-7.

Adewoyin AS. Approach to anaemia, diagnosis in developing countries: focus on aetiology and laboratory work-up. Int Blood Res Review. 2015;4(1):1-13.

Sullivan KM, Mei Z, Grummer‐Strawn L, Parvanta I. Haemoglobin adjustments to define anaemia. Trop Med Int Health. 2008;13(10):1267-71.

De Benoist B. eds. World-wide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005. WHO Global database on anaemia. Geneva, World health organization, 2008.

Kennedy E, Meyers L. Dietary Reference Intakes: development and uses for assessment of micronutrient status of women-a global perspective. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(5):1194S-7S.

World Health Organization. The prevalence of anemia in pregnancy, WHO Technical reports, 1992-1993.

Centers for Disease Control (CDC. CDC criteria for anemia in children and childbearing-aged women. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report. 1989;38(22):400.

Sharma JB. Nutritional anaemia during pregnancy in third world countries. Prog Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;15:103-22.

Akhtar M, Hassan I. Severe anaemia during late pregnancy. Case Reports Obstet Gynecol. 2012;2012.

Vivek RG, Halappanavar AB, Vivek PR, Halki SB, Maled VS, Deshpande PS. Prevalence of Anemia and its epidemiological. Determinants in Pregn Women. 2012;5(3):216-23.

Elzahrani SS. Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Al-Hada Hospital. Canad J Med. 2012;3(1):10-4.

Raza N, Sarwar I, Munazza B, Ayub M, Suleman M. Assessment of iron deficiency in pregnant women by determining iron status. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2011;23(2):36-40.

Brooker S, Hotez PJ, Bundy DA. Hookworm-related anaemia among pregnant women: a systematic review. PLOS Neglect Trop Dis. 2008:2(9):e291.

Salhan S, Tripathi V, Singh R, Gaikwad HS. Evaluation of hematological parameters in partial exchange and packed cell transfusion in treatment of severe anemia in pregnancy. Anemia. 2012;2012.

Bereka SG, Gudeta AN, Reta MA, Ayana LA. Prevalence and associated risk factors of anemia among pregnant women in rural part of JigJiga City, Eastern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. J Preg Child Health. 2017;4(337):2.

Mangla M, Singla D. Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in rural India: a longitudinal observational study. In J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2016;5(10):3500-5.

Rajamouli J, Ravinder A, Reddy SCK, Pambi S. Study on Prevalence of Anemia among Pregnant Women attending Antenatal Clinic at Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC) and Chalmeda Anand Rao Institute of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Karimnagar, Telangana. Int J Contemp Med Res. 2016;3(8):2388-91.

Lokare PO, Karanjekar VD, Gattani PL, Kulkarni AP. A study of prevalence of anemia and socio-demographic factors associated with anemia among pregnant women in Aurangabad city, India. Ann Nigerian Med. 2012;6(1):30-4.

Taner CE, Ekin A, Solmaz U, Gezer C, Çetin B, Keleşoğlu M, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of anemia among pregnant women attending a high-volume tertiary care center for delivery. J Turk German Gynecol Assoc. 2015;16(4):231.

Sifakis S, Phamakides G. Anemia in pregnancy. Ann New York Academy Sci. 2000;900(1):125-36.