Hysteroscopy and pain: what risk factors should we consider in office hysteroscopy? are there really any?


  • Antonio A. Paulo Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Centre Tondela-Viseu, Portugal; Department of Health Sciences, University of Aveiro - Portugal
  • Jose Damasceno-Costa Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Centre Tondela-Viseu, Portugal
  • Antonio Pipa Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Centre Tondela-Viseu, Portugal
  • Vera M. Afreixo Department of Mathematics and Institute of Biomedicine, University of Aveiro, Portugal




Office hysteroscopy, Pain, Predictive factors


Background: Office hysteroscopy is the gold standard in abnormal uterine bleeding and an indispensable tool in modern gynecology. It is becoming increasingly popular leading to examinations and even operations without anesthesia as it is accurate, cheap and well tolerated. However, pain is still a limitation. The objective of the study was to determine if pain perception is linked to clinical predictors and how well they correlate with pain score.

Methods: Prospective observational trial enrolled one hundred and four women; four cases were excluded. One hundred cases were included and analyzed. Selection criteria: patients scheduled for Office Hysteroscopy who accepted to participate and had no contraindication for procedure.

Results: A ten centimeter visual analogue scale was used for pain evaluation. Presumed variables such as menopause, pelvic pain, previous cesarean section and cervical surgery, and body mass index were analyzed by ordered regression using standard statistical software tools.

Conclusions: Correlation between predictive factors and pain reporting showed no significance (p>0.05) except for body mass index which was found to significantly correlate to discomfort (p<0.05).


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Original Research Articles