Prolapse of the urethral mucosa in a prepubertal Indian girl
Keywords:Medical treatment, Prepubertal girl, Urethral mucosa prolapse
Prolapse of urethral mucosa in prepubescent girls is an uncommon entity and most often seen among native Africans. Management of these cases is controversial. Some would adopt initial medical treatment and others prefer surgical treatment as primary modality with a very few recurrences. Though urethral mucosal prolapse has been managed successfully with surgery in many African girls, the role of medical management and its success cannot be overlooked. Authors present a case of urethral mucosal prolapse in a prepubescent Indian girl who was successfully treated with medical management with no recurrence on follow up.
Richardson DA, Hajj SN, Herbst AL. Medical treatment of urethral prolapse in children. Obstet Gynecol. 1982;59(1):69-74.
Fiogbe MA, Hounnou GM, Koura A, Agossou-Voyeme KA. Urethral mucosal prolapse in young girls: a report of nine cases in Cotonou. African J Paediatr Surg. 2011;8(1):12-4.
Valerie E, Gilchrist BF, Frischer J, Scriven R, Kolz DH, Ramensfsky ML. Diagnosis and treatment of urethral prolapse in children. Urol. 1999;54(6):1082-84.
Carlson NJ, Mercer LJ, Hajj SN. Urethral prolapse in the premenarcheal female. Int J Gynecol Obstetr. 1987;25(1):69-71.
Fernandes ET, Dekermacher S, Sabadin MA, Vaz F. Urethral prolapsed in children. Urol. 1993;41:240-2.
Rudin JE, Geldt VG, Alecseev EB. Prolapse of urethral mucosa in white female children: experience with 58 cases. J Pediatr Surg. 1997;32(3):423-5.
Rock JA, Horowitz JR. Surgical conditions of vagina and urethra. In: Rock JA, Thompson JD, eds. T Elinde’s Operative gynecology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven (publishers),1999:911-38.
Akani CI, Pepple DK, Ugboma HA. Urethral prolapse: a retrospective analysis of hospitalized cases in Port Harcourt. Nigerian J Medicine. 2005;14(4):396-9.
Pouya M, Van PC, Wese FX, Opsomer RJ, Saleh M. Mucous prolapse of the urethra. Acta Urologica Belgica. 1995;63(4):23-9.
Batra SC, Iosif CS. Female urethra: a target for estrogen action. J Urol. 1983;129(2):418-20.
Lowe FC, Hill GS, Jeffs RD, Brendler CB. Urethral prolapse in children: insights into etiology and management. J Urol. 1986;135(1):100-3.
Trotman MD, Brewster EM. Prolapse of the urethral mucosa in prepubertal West Indian girls. Br J Urol. 1993;72(4):503-5.
Adesiyun AG, Samaila MO. Childhood urethral mucosa prolapse: outcome of surgical treatment. Nigerian J Surg Res. 2006;8(1):63-6.
Shurtleff BT, Barone JG. Urethral prolapse: Four quadrant excisional technique. J Paed Adolescent Gynaecology. 2002;15(4):207-11.
Venugopal S, Duncan ND, Carpenter R. Urethral prolapse in girls. Pediatric Sur Int. 1995;10(2-3):115-7.
Redman JF. Conservative management of urethral prolapse in female children. Urol. 1982;19(5):505-6.
Fernandes ET, Dekermacher S, Sabadin MA, Vaz F. Urethral prolapse in children. Urol. 1993;41(3):240-2.
Sanfilippo JS, Wakim NG. Bleeding and vulvovaginitis in the pediatric age group. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1987;30(3):653-61.
Holbrook C, Misra D. Surgical management of urethral prolapse in girls: 13 years' experience. Br J Urol Int. 2012;110(1):132-4.
Hillyer S, Mooppan U, Kim H, Gulmi F. Diagnosis and treatment of urethral prolapse in children: experience with 34 cases. Urol. 2009;73(5):1008-11.
Ballouhey Q, Galinier P, Gryn A, Grimaudo A, Pienkowski C, Fourcade L. Benefits of primary surgical resection for symptomatic urethral prolapse in children. J Pediatr Urol. 2014;10(1):94-7.