HIV infection among pregnant women attending an integrated counseling & testing centre at Agra: comparison with studies in other regions of India


  • Tahziba Hussain HIV/AIDS Unit, National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and other Mycobacterial Diseases (ICMR), Tajganj, Agra 282001, India; Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR), Chandrasekharpur, Nandankanan Road, Bhubaneswar. Odisha. India
  • K. K. Kulshreshtha HIV/AIDS Unit, National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and other Mycobacterial Diseases (ICMR), Tajganj, Agra 282001, India
  • V. S. Yadav Division of Biostatistics, National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases (ICMR), Tajganj, Agra 282001, India



HIV, ICTC, Seroprevalence, Pregnant women, Agra, India


Background: HIV in pregnant women has become an important focus of HIV research because of its role in the spread of HIV infection, particularly, among children. The aim of this seven year (2005-2011) observational study was to determine the prevalence, trend and risk factors associated with HIV infections among pregnant women presenting to ICTC at Agra.

Methods: The socio-demographic data like age, marital status, literacy status, profession, locality of residence and index of gravity were analysed in the context of symptoms at the time testing.

Results: 433 pregnant women were screened for HIV and VDRL infections. 5.7% were HIV-positive and 14.3% were VDRL-reactive. HIV-positivity ranged between 2-5% whereas that of VDRL ranged from 8-12%. During 2011, there was a surge in HIV-positivity (11%) and VDRL reactivity (24%).

Conclusions: There is an urgent need to perform surveys of HIV and other co-infections like HBV, HCV and STD prevalence among pregnant women to assess the true extent of the problem. Cost-effective treatment regimens and HIV prevention programmes for low-risk group clients are urgently needed in most parts of the country. 

This is the first review of HIV and other co-infections among pregnant women in different regions of the country.

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