Assessment of menstrual characteristics among nulliparous female consumers of carbonated soft drinks


  • Ologhaguo M. Adienbo Department of Human Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
  • Victor O. Hart Department of Human Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
  • Austine A. Ajah Department of Human Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria



Menstrual characteristics, Menstrual cycle, Soft drink


Background: Soft drinks are consumed in large quantities globally as beverages for refreshment and for social purposes as substitutes or supplements to alcoholic drinks. Health concerns over soft drinks consumption have been severally reported.  Aim: This study is aimed at investigating the effect soft drink consumption on the menstrual characteristics of female Nigerians.                                                                                                                        

Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study of 639 nulliparous females of age range 16-40 years with regular menstruation were randomly selected, comprising 392 (61.30%) who consume carbonated soft drink regularly during menstruation, and 247 (38.70%) who do not. Structured questionnaires were administered to each subject to determine their age and menstrual characteristics (duration, flow, pain and cycle).                                                    

Results: The results showed that consumption of soft drinks during menstruation causes an increase in menstrual flow in 85.71% of consumers; 89.54% observed an increase in menstrual pain, while 51.53%  reported prolongation in duration of menstrual bleeding. Also, a significant (p=0.002) increase in the duration of menstrual bleeding, with an insignificant (p>0.05) increase in menstrual cycle (p>0.05) were observed among soft drink consumers when compared to non-consumers.

Conclusions: This study has shown that consumption of soft drinks during menstruation could alter menstrual characteristics in nulliparous females by increasing the menstrual flow, menstrual pain and menstrual duration.


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