Lipid profile and cardiovascular risk indices of women on various types of contraceptives in the Ho Municipality of Ghana

Ahmed Tijani Bawah, Michael Asamoah Boateng, Francis A. Osei Kuffour, Mohammed Mustapha Seini, Paul Amoah, Huseini Alidu


Background: Hormonal contraceptives (HCs) have been successfully used worldwide to prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation and implantation. These contraceptives have effects on lipid metabolism, body fat and blood pressure which are all risk factors for cardio vascular disease (CVD). Some studies have reported that prolonged use of these hormone-based contraceptives have negative effect on cardiovascular risk indices, however, few of such studies have been done in Ghana, hence this study sought to examine the effect of various forms of contraceptives on cardio vascular risk indices in the Volta Region of Ghana.

Methods: Purposive random sampling was employed in selecting women on various forms of contraceptives and aged-matched controls into the study. Fasting blood sample was collected from each participant after overnight fast for 10-16 hours into plain tubes and the sera used to determine lipid profile. Socio-demographic and BMI variables were also analyzed in this case-control study.

Results: Statistically significant differences were observed for Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) (p=0.0153), High Density Lipoprotein levels (HDL) (p=0.001), and the atherogenic index (p=0.0101) between the cases and the controls.

Conclusions: The use of HC significantly affects the DBP, HDL and atherogenic index and these could pose substantial risk for the development of CVD.


Blood pressure, Cardiovascular disease, Hormonal contraceptive, Implant, Lipid profile, Oral contraceptive

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