Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in antenatal women and its associated risk factors

Leila J. Gracelyn, Saranya N.


Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an important public health problem in India and its prevalence is steadily increasing. It is one of the common complications during pregnancy affecting both maternal and fetal outcome. The increased prevalence is due to the aging population structure, urbanization, obesity epidemic and physical inactivity. Among the South Asian ethnic groups, Indian women mainly south Indians are developing GDM in highest frequency which emphasizes the significance of universal screening in South Asians. The main objective was to find out the prevalence of Gestational diabetes mellitus according to ADA criteria and to examine its association with a number of risk factors in the pregnant population.

Methods: Hospital based analytical cross sectional study was conducted for 1 year among 500 antenatal women. Fasting blood glucose was measured after which they were given 75 g oral glucose and plasma glucose was estimated at 1hour and 2hour. GDM was diagnosed according to ADA criteria. Inclusion criterion was pregnant women attending outpatient department between 24-28 weeks gestation. Exclusion criteria were known diabetic women (pre gestational)/diagnosed having GDM before 24 weeks.

Results: Prevalence of GDM was found to be 11.8%. Gestational diabetes mellitus was found to be significantly associated with age, BMI, past history of PCOS, family history of diabetes, excess weight gain in present pregnancy, GDM in previous pregnancy and previous poor fetal outcome.

Conclusions: Prevalence of GDM is progressively increasing and it was significantly associated with multiple risk factors. Universal screening should be done for all pregnant women for better maternal and fetal outcome


Gestational diabetes mellitus, Oral glucose tolerance test, Prevalence, PCOS

Full Text:



American Diabetes Association. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(Suppl 1):14-80.

HAPO Study Cooperative Research Group, Metzger BE, Lowe LP, Dyer AR, Trimble ER, Chaovarindr U, et al. Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2008;358(19):1991-2002.

Ferrara A, Hedderson MM, Quesenberry CP, Selby JV. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus detected by the National Diabetes Data Group or the Carpenter and Coustan plasma glucose thresholds. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(9):1625-30.

Schwartz R, Teramo KA. Effects of diabetic pregnancy on the fetus and newborn. Semin Perinatol. 2000;24(2):120-35.

Misra A, Chowbey P, Makkar BM, Vikram NK, Wasir JS, Chadha D. Consensus statement for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome for Asian Indians and recommendations for physical activity, medical and surgical management. J Assoc. Physicians India. 2009;57:163-70.

Di Cianni G, Volpe L, Lencioni C, Miccoli R, Cuccuru I, Ghio A, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for gestational diabetes assessed by universal screening. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003;62(2):131-7.

Agarwal S, Gupta AN. Gestational Diabetes.J Assoc Physicians India. 1982;30:203-5.

Seshiah V, Balaji V, Balaji MS, Sanjeevi CB, Green A. Gestational diabetes mellitus in India. J Assoc Physicians India. 2004;52:707-11.

World Health Organization. Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycemia: A report of WHO/IDF consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006.

Soheilykhah S, Mogibian M, Rahimi-Saghand S, Rashidi M, Soheilykhah S, Piroz M. Incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant Women. Iranian J Reprod Med. 2010;8(1):24-8.

Das V, Kamra S, Mishra A. Screening for gestational diabetes and maternal and fetal outcome. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2004;54:449-51.

Kalyani KR, Jajoo S, Hariharan C, Samal S. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, its associated risk factors and pregnancy outcomes at a rural setup in Central India. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2014;3(1):219-24.

Rajput R, Yadav Y, Nanada S, Rajput M. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors at a tertiary care hospital in Haryana. Indian J Med Red. 2013;137:728-33.

Sreekanthan K, Belicita A, Rajendran K, Vijayakumar A. Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Medical College in South India: A Pilot Study. Indian Journal of Clinical Practice. 2014;25(4):342-7.

Kalra P, Kachhwaha CP, Singh HV. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and its outcome in western Rajasthan. Indian J Endocr Metab. 2013;17:677-80.

Zargar AH, Sheikh MI, Bashir M, Masoodi SR, Laway BA, Wani AI, et al. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in Kashmiri women in Indian subcontinent. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2004;66(2):139-45.

Sharma K, Wahi P, Gupta A, Jandial K, Bhagat R, Gupta R, et al. Single Glucose Challenge Test Procedure for Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Jammu Cohort Study. J Assoc Physicians India. 2013;61:558-9.

Physiological changes during pregnancy, In: Dutta DC. 21. Textbook of obstetrics, 6th ed New Central Book Agency (P) Ltd. 2004. p.50.

Saldana TM, Siega-Riz AM, Adair LS, Suchindran C. The relationship between pregnancy weight gain and glucose tolerance status among black and white women in central North Carolina. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;195(6):1629-35.

Bo S, Menato G, Signorile A, Bardelli C, Lezo A, Gallo ML, et al. Obesity or diabetes: what is worse for the mother and for the baby? Diabetes Metab. 2003;29:175-8.

Bibi S, Saleem U, Mahsood N. The frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors at Khyber teaching hospital Peshawar. J Postgrad Med Inst. 2015;29(1):43-6.

Radon PA, Mcmahon MJ, Meyer WR. Impaired GTT in preg┬Čnant women with PCOs. Obstet Gynocol. 1999;94:174-97.

McGuire V, Rauh MJ, Mueller BA, Hickock D. The risk of diabetes in a subsequent pregnancy associated with prior history of gestational diabetes or a macrosomic infant. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1996;10:64-72.

Reece EA, Leguizamon G, Wiznitzer A. Gestational diabetes: the need for a common ground. Lancet. 2009;373:1789-97.