DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20184493

Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and its effects on neonatal outcome

Shweta Gupta, Kanupriya Jain, Jaspreet Kaur

Abstract


Background: India has one of the highest Vitamin D deficiency rates in pregnancy in the world and yet we have limited research to study its various effects from our country. We aim to study the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and effect on neonatal outcome after supplementation.

Methods: 200 pregnant women were recruited at 26 weeks and more. They were divided into sufficient group (normal levels of the vitamin), supplemented group (recruited at 26 weeks and supplemented for 8 weeks) and unsupplemented group (recruited after 34 weeks and so could not be supplemented) based on time of recruitment and levels of vitamin D. They were followed up till discharge of newborn from the hospital. Neonatal outcomes were noted.

Results: The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy in present study was 94.5%. Vegetarians and urban residents were more likely to have this deficiency. Admissions to NICU were significantly less in neonates of vitamin D supplemented women.

Conclusions: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is very high during pregnancy and further studies are needed to clearly define its role in neonatal outcome.


Keywords


Neonatal outcome, Prevalence, Pregnancy, Vitamin D deficiency

Full Text:

PDF

References


Hollis BW, Wagner CL, Drezner MK, Binkley NC. Circulating vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in humans: An important tool to define adequate nutritional vitamin D status. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;103(3-5):631-4.

Weisman Y, Harell A, Edelstein S, David M, Spirer Z. 1 alpha, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in vitro synthesis by human decidua and placenta. Nature. 1979;281(5729):317-9.

Delvin EE, Salle BL, Glorieux FH, Adeleine P, David LS. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: effect on neonatal calcium homeostasis. J Pediatr. 1986;109(2):328-34.

Yu CK, Sykes L, Sethi M, Teoh TG, Robinson S. Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation during pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;70(5):685-90.

Brooke OG, Brown IR, Bone CD, Carter ND, Cleeve HJ, Maxwell JD, et al. Vitamin D supplements in pregnant Asian women: effects on calcium status and fetal growth. Brit Med J. 1980;280(6216):751-4.

van der Pligt P, Willcox J, Szymlek-Gay EA, Murray E, Worsley A, Daly RM. Associations of Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency with Pregnancy and Neonatal Complications in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review.Nutrients.2018;10(5):640

Mehlawat U, Singh P, Pande S. Current status of Vitamin-D deficiency in India. IPP. 2014;2(2):328-35.

Xin Z., Jianping X., Rui F., Renqiang Y., Daozhen C., Jun Z. Maternal vitamin D status in the late second trimester and the risk of severe preeclampsia in southeastern China. Nutrients. 2017;9(2):138

Clemens TL, Adams JS, Henderson SL. Increased skin pigment reduces the capacity of skin to synthesise vitamin D3. Lancet. 1982;319(8263):74-6.

Harris, S.S. and Dawson-Hughes, B. Seasonal changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D oncentrations of young American black and white women. Am J Clinic Nutrit. 1998;67(6):1232-6.

Morley R, Carlin JB, Pasco JA, Wark JD. Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations and offspring birth size. J Clinic Endocrinol Metabol. 2006;91(3):906-12.

Gale CR, Robinson SM, Harvey NC, Javaid MK, Jiang B, Martyn CN, et al. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and child outcomes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008;62(1):68-77.

Viljakainen HT, Saarnio E, Hytinantti T, Miettinen M, Surcel H, Makitie O, et al. Maternal vitamin D status determines bone variables in the newborn. J Clinic Endocrinol Metabol. 2010;95(4):1749-57.

Camargo CA Jr, Rifas-Shiman SL, Litonjua AA, Rich-Edwards JW, Weiss ST, Gold DR, et al. Maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of recurrent wheeze in children at 3 y of age. Am J Clinic Nutrit. 2007;85(3):788-95.

Chen YH, Fu L, Hao JH, Yu Z, Zhu P, Wang H. et al Maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy elevates the risks of small for gestational age and low birth weight infants in Chinese population. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2015;100(5):1912-9.

Aydogmus S., Kelekci S., Aydogmus H., Eriş S., Desdicioğlu R., Yilmaz B., Sağlam G. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women in a Turkish population and impact on perinatal outcomes. J. Matern. Fetal Neonatal Med. 2015;28(15):1828-32.

Ajmani SN, Paul M, Chauhan P, Ajmani AK, Yadav N. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in burka-clad pregnant women in a 450-bedded maternity hospital of Delhi. J Obs Gynecol. India. 2016;66(1):67-71.