Published: 2018-10-25

Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and its feto-maternal outcome in Kamla Nehru state hospital for mother and child, IGMC, Shimla, India

Aleeza Pal, Bishan Dhiman, Rita Mittal, Bhaskar J. Paul


Background: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity with the onset or first recognition during pregnancy. It is a disease entity that adversely affects maternal as well as fetal outcome. DIPSI guideline having suggested one-time plasma glucose level has emerged as a simple, practical and cheap method to detect GDM. This study was done to evaluate the prevalence of gestational diabetes using Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group India (DIPSI) criteria and further assess its feto maternal outcome in Kamla Nehru State Hospital for Mother and Child, IGMC, Shimla.

Methods: This study was conducted in 500 patients between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation, attending the antenatal OPD. These patients were given 75g oral glucose irrespective of last meal and their plasma glucose was estimated at 2h. Patients with plasma glucose ≥140mg/dl were diagnosed as GDM and the rest as control or the non GDM group. The GDM patients were followed up and treated with medical nutrition therapy (MNT) and/or insulin therapy till delivery and maternal and fetal outcomes were then noted.

Results: The prevalence of GDM in this study was 6%. Maternal and fetal complications were more in the GDM patients. Vaginal candidiasis and PROM were the common maternal complications, while hypoglycemia and hyperbilirubinemia were common in the fetuses.

Conclusions: GDM adversely affects the mother as well as fetus. DIPSI guideline having suggested a single plasma glucose level test has emerged as a practical and economical method to detect GDM.


Fetomaternal outcome, Gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy, Prevalence

Full Text:



Diabetes, In: Williams OBSTETRICS. 23rd edition. The McGraw–Hil Companies; Inc.2010:1106.

Schmidt MI, Duncan BB, Reichelt AJ, Branchtein L, Matos MC, Forti A, et al. For the Brazilian Gestational Diabetes Study Group. Gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed with a 2-h 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Diab Care. 2001;24(7):1151-5.

Seshiah V, Balaji V, Balaji MS, Sanjeevi CB, Green A. 3. Gestational diabetes mellitus in India. J Assoc Physicians India. 2004;52:707-11.

Zargar AH, Sheikh MI, Bashir MI, Masoodi SR, Laway BA, 4. Wani AI, et al. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in Kashmiri women from the Indian Subcontinent. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2004;66(2):139-45.

Seshiah V, Balaji V, Balaji MS, Paneerselvam A, Arthi T, et al. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in South India (Tamil Nadu) - a community based study. J Assoc Physicians India. 2008;56:329-33.

Kalra P,Kachhwaha C, Singh H.Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and its outcome in Western Rajasthan. Ind J Endo Metab 2013; 17(4):677.

Seshiah V, Sahay BK, Das AK, Shah S, Banerjee S, Rao PV, Ammini A, Balaji V, Gupta S, Divakar H, Misra S. Gestational diabetes mellitus-Indian guidelines. J Indian Medi Associat. 2009;107(11):799.

Bevier WC, Jovanovic-Peterson L, Peterson CM. Pancreatic disorders of pregnancy: diagnosis, management, and outcome of gestational diabetes. Endocrinol Metabol Clinic North Am. 1995;24(1):103-38.

Singh A, Uma B. Incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus and its outcomes in a rural population. J Evol Med Dental Sci. 2013;2(13):1982-7.

Rajput R, Yadav Y, Nanda S, Rajput M. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors at a tertiary care hospital in Haryana. Indian J Med Res. 2013;137(4):728.

Xiong X, Saunders LD, Wang FL, Demianczuk NN. Gestational diabetes mellitus: prevalence,risk factors, maternal and infant outcomes. Internet J Gynaecol Obstet. 2001;75(3):221-8.

Wahi P, Dogra V, Jandial K, Bhagat R, Gupta R, Gupta S, et al. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and its outcomes in Jammu region. J Assoc Physicians India 2011;59(4):227-30.

Chanu MM, Syiemleh AJ, Pradhan B, Devi RP Clinical Study of Fetomaternal Outcome of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. J Dent Med Sci.2015;14(4):53-6.

Yang X, Hsu-Hage B, Zhang H, Yu L, Dong L, Li J. et al. Gestational diabetes mellitus in women of single gravidity in Tianjin City, China. Diabetes Care 2002;25(5):847-51.

Latest evidence in gestational diabetes. In: Studd J, Tan Sl, Chervenak FA, eds. Current Progress in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Tree Life Media; 2012;1:40-41.