DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20184953

Awareness about cervical cancer risk factors and symptoms

Sadhana Singh, Nutan Narayan, Rupam Sinha, Pragya Sinha, Virendra Prasad Sinha, Jayshree J. Upadhye

Abstract


Background: Lack of awareness of risk factors and symptoms for cancer may leads to late diagnosis and poor prognosis. A Cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted to assess community awareness about cervical cancer risk factors and symptoms and perceptions about prevention and cure of cervical cancer.

Methods: The cross-sectional study included 200 married women aged 18 years and above who consented for the study.

Results: In present study, out of 200 respondents, the risk factors for cervical carcinoma known to females were HPV infection in 30 (15%), multiparity and reproductive tract infection in 24 (12%) each, frequent childbirth in 22 (11%), early marriage in 18 (9%) and multiple sexual partners in 12 (6%).158 (79%) females knew vaginal bleeding between menses as symptom of cervical cancer. 132 (66%) knew symptom as foul-smelling vaginal discharge, 86 (42%) as lower abdominal pain, 82 (41%) as loss of appetite and weight while 52 (26%) females knew the symptom as postcoital bleeding. 54 (27%) respondents knew that pap smear test should be done as screening test to detect cervical cancer in early stage while 22 (11%) respondents knew about HPV vaccine as preventive measure.

Conclusions: Recognition of cervical cancer risk factors and symptoms was low among study participants. Targeted interventions including increasing availability of HPV vaccination, population-based cervical screening and diagnostic services can translate high awareness into actual benefits.


Keywords


Cervical cancer, Cure, Knowledge, Perception, Prevention

Full Text:

PDF

References


Sankaranarayanan R, Budukh AM, Rajkumar R. Effective screening programmes for cervical cancer in low- and middle-income developing countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2001;79: 954-62.

Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017

WHO. Comprehensive Cervical Cancer Control; A Guide to Essential Practice. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press, World Health Organization, 2006.

International Agency for research on cancer IARC Monographs on Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Human Papilloma Virus. 2007;90

Bharadwaj M. Hussain, Nasare V, Das BC. HPV and HPV Vaccination issues in developing countries, Indian J Med Res. 2009;130(3):327-33.

Asthana S, Labani S. Factors associated with attitudes of rural women toward cervical cancer screening. Indian J Comm Medi. 2013;38(4):246.

Christian Nordqvist, What you need to know about cervical cancer, Medical News Today, Dec 2017

Jayant K, Rao RS, Nene BM, Dale PS. Improved stage at diagnosis of cervical cancer with increased cancer awareness in a rural Indian population. Int J Cancer, 1995;63(2):161-3.

Dhodapkar SB, Chauhan RC, Thampy S. Knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer and its prevention among nursing staff of a tertiary care teaching institute in South India. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2014;3(4):1056-60.

Mwaka AD, Orach CG, Were EM, Lyratzopoulos G, Wabinga H, Roland M. Awareness of cervical cancer risk factors and symptoms: cross‐sectional community survey in post‐conflict northern Uganda. Health Expectations. 2016;19(4):854-67.

Shah V, Vyas S, Singh A, Shrivastava M. Awareness and knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention among the nursing staff of a tertiary health institute in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. ecancermedicalscience. 2012;6.

Ali SF, Ayub S, Manzoor NF, Azim S, Afif M, Akhtar N, Jafery WA, Tahir I, Farid-ul-Hasnian S, Uddin N. Knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer and its prevention amongst interns and nursing staff in Tertiary Care Hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. PloS one. 2010;5(6):e11059.

Aswathy S, Quereshi M A, Kurian B, Leelamoni K. Cervical cancer screening: Current knowledge and practice among women in a rural population of Kerala, India. Indian J Med Res. Aug 2012;136(2):205.

O’Connor M, Kelleher C, Do doctors benefit from their profession? A survey of medical practitioners’ health safety practices, Ir Med J. 1998;91:206-9

Hadley DW, Jenkins J, Dimond E, Nakahara K, Grogan L, Liewehr DJ et al. Genetic counseling and testing in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Arch Int Med. 2003;163(5):573-82.

Harsha Kumar HN, Tanya S. A study on knowledge and screening for cervical cancer among women in Mangalore city. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2014;4(5):751-6.