Premature ovarian failure incidence, risk factors and its relation to BMI and infertility

Smita Baheti, Anjana Verma, Medhavi Sharma


Background: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is cessation in the normal functioning of the ovaries in women younger than age 40 years. It is estimated to affect1% of women younger than 40 years and 0.1% of those under 30 years. Premature ovarian failure is a common cause of infertility in women.

Methods: Patient attending outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology with age less than 40 years and complaint of menstrual disturbances, symptoms of menopause were enrolled for the study for duration of 1year. This study is planned to calculate the incidence, risk factors, relation to BMI and infertility in patients attending outpatient department at Geetanjali medical college and hospital, Udaipur for all enrolled patient coming with complaints of menstrual disturbances. FSH levels were send for all the patients and those with FSH level more than 20 at day 2/3 for menstruating women and random FSH level for amenorrhea patient more than 20 were classified in to study group and all those women with FSH less than 20 are taken as control group.

Results: Present study strongly suggests that simple laboratory test FSH and symptoms of missed and irregularity of menstrual cycle help in early and prompt diagnosis of premature ovarian failure. And early diagnosis helps in avoiding unnecessary medications and helps in improving long term morbidity.

Conclusions: Disturbances in menstrual cycle like amenorrhea and infrequent cycles are the symptoms which are associated with premature ovarian failure after ruling out pregnancy and other hormonal and structural causes.


Hypo-oestrogenism, Infertility, Premature ovarian failure, Primary amenorrrhoea, Secondary amenorrrhoea

Full Text:



Vujovic S, Brincat M, Erel T, Gambacciani M, Lambrinoudaki I, Moen MH, et al. EMAS position statement: Managing women with premature ovarian failure. Maturitas. 2010;67(1):91-3.

Map of medicine menopause. Available at: (http://healthguides.

Coulam CB, Adamson SC, Annegers JF. Incidence of premature ovarian failure. Obstetr Gynecol. 1986;67(4):604-6.

Cramer D, Xu H.Predicting age at menopause. Maturitas.1996;23(3):19-326.

Ossewaarde ME, Bots ML, Verbeek AL, Peeters PH, Van der Graaf Y, et al. Age at menopause, cause-specific mortality and total life expectancy. Epidemiol. 2005;16:556-62.

Progetto Menopausa Italia Study Group, list of participants indicated at the end of this article. Premature ovarian failure: frequency and risk factors among women attending a network of menopause clinics in Italy. BJOG: Int J Obstetr Gynaecol. 2003;110(1):59-63.

Hanan Abduljabbar Al-taee. Risk factors for premature ovarian failure in women from babylon/Iraq. Medical J Babylon. 2014;11(1).

Luborsky J, Meyer P, Sowers MF, Gold E, Santoro N. Premature menopause in a multi-ethnic population study of the menopause transition. Human Reproduct.2002; 18:199-206.

Do K.A, Treloar S.A, Pandeya N, Purdie D, Green A.C, Heath A.C, et al. Predictive factors of age at menopause in a large Australian twin study. Hum. Biol.1998;70:1073-91.

Frohlich KL, Kuh DJ, Hardy R, Wadsworth ME. Menstrual patterns during the inception of perimenopause: what are the predictors and what do they predict?. J Women's Health Gender-Based Med. 2000;9(1):35-42.

Gold EB, Bromberger J, Crawford S, Samuels S, Greendale GA, Harlow SD et al. Factors associated with age at natural menopause in a multi ethnic sample of midlife women. Am J Epidemiol.2001;153: 865-74.

Luoto R, Kaprio J, Uutela A. Age at natural menopause and sociodemographic status in Finland. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;139(1):64-76.

Dorman J, Steenkiste A, Foley T, Strotmeyer E, Burke J, Kuller L, et al. (2001) The menopause in type 1 diabetic women: is it premature?. Diabetes. 2001;50:1857-62.

Winqvist O, Gebre-Medhin GE, Gustafsson J, Ritzén EM, Lundkvist O, Karlsson FA, et al. Identification of the main gonadal autoantigens in patients with adrenal insufficiency and associated ovarian failure. J Clinical Endocrinol Metabol. 1995;80(5):1717-23.

Myhre AG, Halonen M, Eskelin P, Ekwall O, Hedstrand H, Rorsman F, et al. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS I) in Norway. Clinical Endocrinol. 2001;54(2):211-7.

Falsetti L, Scalchi S, Villani MT, Bugari G. Premature ovarian failure. Gynecol Endocrinol.1999; 13:189-95.

Luborsky JL, Visintin I, Boyers S, Asari T, Caldwell B, DeCherney A. Ovarian antibodies detected by immobilized antigen immunoassay in patients with premature ovarian failure. J Clinical Endocrinol Metabol.1990;70(1):69-75.

Anasti JN.Premature ovarian failure: an update. Fertil Steril.1998;70:1-15.

Goswami D, Conway GS. Premature ovarian failure. Hum Reprod Update. 2005;11:391-410.

Kim TJ, Anasti JN, Flack MR, Kimzey LM, Defensor RA, Nelson LM. Routine endocrine screening for patients with karyotypically normal spontaneous premature ovarian failure. Obstetr Gynecol. 1997;89(5):777-9.

Betterle C, Rossi A, Pria SD, Artifoni A, Pedini B, Gavasso S, et al. Premature ovarian failure: autoimmunity and natural history. Clinical Endocrinol. 1993;39(1):35-43.

Labarbera AR, Miller MM, Ober C, Rebar RW. Autoimmune etiology in premature ovarian failure. Am J Reprod Immunol Microbiol. 1988;16(3):115-22.