DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20185403

Semen parameters and the incidence and effects of bacteriospermia in male partners of infertile couples attending a fertility clinic in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

Edward Agyepong, Kweku Bedu-Addo

Abstract


Background: Inability to conceive after at least 12 months of unprotected regular intercourse has been recognized as a very serious problem for couples especially those who are at the reproductive age and legally married. Bacterial infection of male genitourinary tract is considered as one of the promoting factors for male infertility. These pathogenic bacteria in the ejaculates can induce a defect in semen parameters, such as sperm count, morphology and motility which are predictors of male fertility potential. The study was conducted to assess the semen quality and the incidence of bacteriospermia in male partners of infertile couples attending fertility clinic at Trust Care Specialist Hospital, Kumasi.

Methods: Semen samples of 300 male partners of infertile couples were collected and evaluated by WHO guidelines. The samples were also cultured using standard bacterial culture techniques.

Results: Oligozoospermia was the highest semen abnormality identified. This was followed by Teratozoospermia. Other semen abnormalities identified were azoospermia, asthenozoospermia, oligoteratozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia, and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. 67 (22.3%) out of the 300 samples showed significant bacterial growth. Eight different bacteria species were isolated. E. coli, was isolated from 27 of the samples, S. aureus from 13 of the samples, U. urealyticum from 10 of the samples, Chlamydia trachomatis from 9 of the samples, Pseudomonas spp from 5 of the samples Proteus spp, Klesbsiella spp and M. morganii were each isolated from one sample.

Conclusions: Although bacteria were isolated in 22.3% of the semen samples, their presence imparted negatively on the semen quality. This suggests that bacterial infection should be one of the investigations to be carried out in the treatment of infertility. Even when count, motility, and morphology look normal other parameters such as infection and sperm DNA should be investigated during the treatment of infertility.


Keywords


Bacteriospermia, Infertility, Semen, Spermatozoa, Normospermia

Full Text:

PDF

References


Rowe PJ, Comhaire FH, Hargreave TB, Mahmoud AMA. WHO Manual for the Investigation, Diagnosis and Management of the Infertile Men. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. (2000)

The Male Infertility Best Practice Policy Committee of the American Urological Association and the Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Report on optimal evaluation of the infertile male. Fertil Steril. 2006;86(4):S202-9

Dawson C, Whitfield H. ABC of urology. Subfertility and male sexual dysfunction. BMJ. 1996;312(7035):902-5.

Irvine DS, Cawood EHH, Richardson DW. Evidence of deteriorating semen quality in theUK: birth cohort study in 577 men in Scotland over 11 years. Br Med J. 1996;312(7029):476-1.

Poppe K, Velkeniers B. Thyroid and infertility. Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg. 2002;64(6):389-99.

Razzak AH, Wais SA. The infertile couple: A cohort study in Duhok, Iraq. EstMediterr Health J. 2002; 8(2-3):234-8.

Bayasgalan G, Naranbat D, Tsedmaa B, Tsogmaa B, Sukhee D, Amarjargal O, Lhagvasuren T, Radnaabazar J, Rowe PJ. Clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mongolia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2004;30(5):386-93.

Kothandaraman N., Agarwal, A., Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, M., and Al-Qahtani, MH. Pathogenic landscape of idiopathic male infertility: new insight towards its regulatory networks. NPJ Gen Med 2016;1:1-9

Cottell E, McMorrow J, Lennon B and Fawsy M. Microbial Contamination in an IVF-embryo transfer system. Fertil Steril. 1996;66(5):776-80.

Khalili, M. A.; Pourshafie, M. R.; Saifi, M. & Khalili, M. B. Bacterial infection of the reproductive tract of infertile men in Iran. MEFSJ. 2000;5:126-31.

World Health Organization. WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and semen-cervical mucus interactions. 4th ed. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press; 1999

Fraczek M, Kurpisz M. Inflammatory mediators exert toxic effects of oxidative stress on human spermatozoa. J Androl. 2007;28(2):325-33.

Purvis K and Christiansen E. The impact of infection on sperm quality. J B Fertil Soc. 1996;1:31-41.

Geelhoed DW, Nayembil D, Asare K, Schagen van Leeuwen JH, van Roosmalen J. Infertility in rural Ghana. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2002;79(2):37-142.

Opoku A, Boateng D, Quansah DY, Bedu-Addo K, Ankobea-Krokoe F. Semen Characteristics of Male Infertile Couples in the Kumasi Metropolis: A Study of Primary and Secondary Infertile Couples. British J Med Res. 2014;4(6):1432-41

Brooks GF, Carroll KC, Butel JS, Morse SA. Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg's Medical Microbiology. 24th ed. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill; 2007.

WHO. WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen. 5th Ed; 2010

Enwuru, CP, Agbasi, UM, Umeh, SI, Egbuobi, RC. Bacterial Isolates and Semen Analysis of Male Partners of Infertile Couples. IOSR J Pharma Biol Sci. 2013;7(3):15-20

Ramesh S T, GirishBabu R J, Srikrishna R & Vinay Kumar K. Semen analysis and culture in men undergoing fertility evaluation. J Pharm Biomed Sci. 2013;34(34):1699-703.

Jajoo S, Kalyani K. Prevalence of abnormal semen analysis in patients of infertility at a rural setup in Central India. Int J Reproduct, Contracep, Obstet Gynecol. 2013;2(2):161-4.

Owolabi AT, Fasubaa OB, Ogunniyi SO. Semen quality of male partners of infertile couples in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Nigerian J Clinic Prac. 2011;16(1):37-40

Mogra N.N., Dhruva A.A. and Kothari L.K. Nonspecific Seminal Tract Infection and Male Infertility: Bacteriol Study J Postgrad Med. 1981;27(2):99-104.

Talaro K. and Talaro, A. Foundations of Microbiology, 2 (USA; WCB/McGraw-Hill). 1996

Agarwal A, Allamaneni SSR. Sperm DNA damage assessment: a test whose time has come. Fertil Steril. 2005;84(4):850-3

Schulte RT, Ohl DA, Sigman M, Smith GD. Sperm DNA damage in male infertility: etiologies, assays, and outcomes. J Assis Reproduct Genet. 2010;27(1):3-12.

Alekwe L, Osamudiamen AI, Aberare LO. Association between bacteriospermia and abnormal semen characteristics. Pak J Med Health Sci. 2013;7(1):3-6.

Vilvanathan S, Kandasamy B, Jayachandran AL, Sathiyanarayanan S, Singaravelu VT, Krishnamurthy V, et al. Interdisciplinary perspectives on infectious diseases; 2016. Article ID 2614692.

Moretti, E, Capitani, S, Figura, N, Pammolli, A, Federico, MG, Giannerini, V et al. The presence of bacteria species in semen and sperm quality. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2009;26(1):47-56

Komolafe, OI. and Awoniyi, AO.The prevalence of microbial isolates associated with infertility in men attending clinic at OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. Int J Microbiol Res Rev. 2013;1(5):88-91.

Bhatt, CP, Mishra, S, Bhatt, SD, Lakhey, M. Bacterial pathogens in semen culture and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in vitro. Int J Biomed Res. 2015;6(11):909-14.

Ruggeri M, Cannas S, Cubeddu M, Molicotti P, Piras GL, Dessole S et al. Bacterial agents as a cause of infertility in humans. New Microbiol. 2016;39(3):206-9.

Enwurua CA, Iwalokuna B, Enwuru VN, Ezechi O, Oluwadun A. The effect of presence of facultative bacteria species on semen and sperm quality of men seeking fertility care. Af J Urol. 2016;22(3):213-22.

Ekhaise FO, Richard FR. Common bacterial isolates associated with semen of men attending the fertility clinic of the University of Teaching Hospital (U.B.T.H), Benin City, Nigeria. Afr J Microbial. 2011;5(22):3805-9

Sanocka-Maciejewska D, Ciupińska M, Kurpisz M. Bacterial infection and semen quality. J Reprod Immunol. 2005;67(1-2):51-6.

Diemer, T, Weidner, W, Michelmann, HW, Schiefer, H-G, Rovan, E, and Mayer, F. Influence of Escherichia coli on motility parameters of human spermatozoa in vitro. Int J Androl. 1996;19(5):271-7

Auroux MR, Jacques L, Mathie, D, Auer J. Is the sperm bacterial ratio a determining factor in impairment of sperm motility: an in-vitro study in man with Escherichia coli. Int J Androl. 1991; 14(4):264-70.

Villegas, J, Schulz, M, Soto, L, and Sanchez, R, (2005). Bacteria induce expression of apoptosis in human spermatozoa. Apop. 2005;10(1):105-10

Gdoura R, Kchaou W, Chaari C, Znazen A, Keskes L, Rebai T et al. Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium infections and semen quality of infertile men. J Androl, 2007;28(2):325-33.