Prevalence and awareness of osteopenia in perimenopausal women in Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India


  • Ajay Dodeja Department of Physiology, MGM Medical College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
  • Anushka Makhija Department of Physiology, MGM Medical College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
  • Ashita Rane Department of Physiology, MGM Medical College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
  • Meeta Dodeja Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jupiter Hospital, Thane, Maharashtra, India



Awareness, BMD (Bone Mineral Density), DEXA, Menopause, Osteopenia, Osteoporosis, Sunlight


Background: Osteopenia is considered as precursor of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a major public health problem associated with substantial morbidity and socio-economic burden worldwide. Osteopenia occurs more frequently in most menopausal women. Early detection of the same can be beneficial to control prevalence of osteoporosis and also to reduce the fracture rates.

Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative study using DEXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) was conducted on 80 women. A self-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate the level of awareness among the study subjects. The data was analyzed using statistical tests such as Chi-Square test for association. The level of significance was set at 5%.

Results: The prevalence of osteopenia in the studied population was 63.75%. The mean age was recorded to be 40.35 years. The mean age of women with menopause in this study is 50.62 years. Out of the 51(63.75%) women diagnosed with osteopenia, 5.9% were underweight, 33.3% were normal and 49% were obese. Of the diseased, 37.3% experienced adequate amount sunlight exposure required while 62.7% did not. Out of the 80 women interviewed 43.75% were aware about osteopenia, its causes and complications; which 56.25% were unaware about the same.

Conclusions: Women were screened for osteopenia with the help of DEXA scan according to the (World Health Organization) WHO, T-Score criteria-which may go undiagnosed otherwise and may experience the risk and complications of osteoporosis.


Khadilkar AV, Mandlik RM. Epidemiology and treatment of osteoporosis in women: an Indian perspective. Int J Womens Health. 2015;19;7:841-50.

Bharathi R, Baby D. Preliminary screening of osteopenia and osteoporosis using quantitative ultrasound bone densitiometry. Indian J Appl Res. 2014;4(1):256-8.

Lim SY, Bolster MB. Current approaches to osteoporosis treatment. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2015;27(3):216-24.

Berendsen AD, Olsen BR. Bone development. Bone. 2015;80:14-8.

Berarducci A. Senior nursing students' knowledge of osteoporosis. Orthop Nurs. 2004;23(2):121-7.

Randell A, Sambrook PN, Nguyen TV, Lapsley H, Jones G, Kelly PJ, et al. Direct clinical and welfare costs of osteoporotic fractures in elderly men and women. Osteopor Int. 1995;5(6):427-32.

Misra A, Chowbey P, Makkar BM, Vikram NK, Wasir JS, Chadha D, et al. Consensus statement for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome for Asian Indians and recommendations for physical activity, medical and surgical management. J Ass Physic India. 2009;57(2):163-70.

Francis RM, Harrington F, Turner E, Papiha SS, Datta HK. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism in men and its effect on bone density and calcium absorption. Clin Endocrinol. 1997;46:83-6.

Hari Kumar K, Muthukrishnan J, Verma A, Modi K. Correlation between bone markers and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Endoc Pract. 2008;14(9):1102-7.

Sharma S, Tandon VR, Mahajan A, Kour A, Kumar D. Preliminary screening of osteoporosis and osteopenia in urban women from Jammu using calcaneal QUS. Indian J Med Sci. 2006;60:183-9.

Arya V, Bhambri R, Godbole MM, Mithal A. Vitamin D status and its relationship with bone mineral density in healthy Asian Indians. Osteopor Int. 2004;15(1):56-61.

Awumey EM, Mitra DA, Hollis BW, Kumar R, Bell NH. Vitamin D metabolism is altered in Asian Indians in the southern United States: a clinical research center study. J Clinic Endocrinol Metabol. 1998;83(1):169-73.

Muscogiuri G. Vitamin D: past, present and future perspectives in the prevention of chronic diseases. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018;72(9):1221-5.

Tai V, Leung W, Grey A, Reid IR, Bolland MJ. Calcium intake and bone mineral density: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2015;351:h4183.

Balk EM, Adam GP, Langberg VN, Earley A, Clark P, Ebeling PR, et al. Global dietary calcium intake among adults: a systematic review. Osteoporosis Int. 2017;28(12):3315-24.

Asomaning K, Bertone-Johnson ER, Nasca PC, Hooven F, Pekow PS. The association between body mass index and osteoporosis in patients referred for a bone mineral density examination. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2006;15(9):1028-3.

Saw SM, Hong CY, Lee J, Wong ML, Chan MF, Cheng A, et al. Awareness and health beliefs of women towards osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2003;14(7):595-601.

Gopinathan NR, Sen RK, Behera P, Aggarwal S, Khandelwal N, Sen M. Awareness of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Indian women: An evaluation of Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale. J Midlife Health. 2016;7(4):180-4.






Original Research Articles