Prevalence of teenage pregnancy and pregnancy outcome at a rural teaching hospital in India
Keywords:LBW, NICU, Oligohydramnios, Teenage pregnancy
Background: Teenage pregnancy accounts for 11% of births worldwide and 95% of these occur in low middle income countries. Pregnancy and its complications are leading cause of death among these girls. This study was done to know the prevalence and to determine whether teenage mothers are at risk of adverse pregnancy outcome.
Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary teaching hospital, India between July 2015 to Dec, 2017. All teenage mothers delivered after 28 weeks of gestation were included. Women with Diabetes mellitus, renal disease, thyroid disorders were excluded. Demographic data, maternal complications like anaemia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm birth, mode of delivery, low birth weight, NICU admissions, stillbirth and early neonatal death were recorded.
Results: In the present study, the prevalence was 7% which is less than that of other studies. Incidence of caesarean-Section in the present study was 31%. Amongst the complications oligohydramnious was found to be significantly associated with teenage pregnancy. NICU admissions were needed for 43% of the cases and 31% were LBW.
Conclusions: High NICU admission and high LBW in newborns of teenage mothers were noted in the current study. Hence, there is urgent need to focus on the teenage pregnancy.
World Health Organization, United Nations Population Fund: Married adolescents: no place of safety. Geneva: WHO-UNFPA;2006.
Adolescent pregnancy- Issues in adolescent health and development, WHO discussion papers on adolescence. WHO, 2004;86.
UNICEF. A league table of teenage births in rich nations: Innocenti Report Card No. 3: The United Nations Children’s Fund. Florence, Italy: Innocenti Research Centre. 2001.
Tunick B. Risks and realities of early childbearing worldwide. Alan Guttmacher Institute Washington, D.C., Alan Guttmacher Institute [AGI], 1996 Dec. 8 p.
Suwal A. Obstetric and Perinatal Outcome of Teenage Pregnancy. J Nepal Health Res Counc. 2012;10(20):52-6.
Hammad SM, Al-Enazi RQ. Does teenage pregnancy affect obstetric outcomes? Egypt J Comm Med.2010;26(3):25-35.
Pun KD, Chauhan M. Outcomes of Adolescent Pregnancy at Kathmandu University Hospital, Dhulikhel Hospital. Kathmandu Univ Med J 2011;33(1):50-3.
Supanan Chairaj, Kasorn Tosang, Suvanna Asavapiriyanont, Uraiwan Chotigeat. Outcome of Teenage Pregnancy in Rajavithi Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai 2010;93(1):1-8.
English FA, Kenny LC, McCarthy FP. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia. Integr Blood Press Cont. 2015;8:7-12.
Report of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 183(1):S1-22.
Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, Hauth JC, Rouse DJ, Spong CY. Pregnancy Hypertension. In: Cunningham, F.G., Leveno, K.J., Bloom, S.L., Hauth, J.C., Rouse, D.J. and Spong, C.Y., Eds., Williams Obstetrics, 23rd Edition, 2010, McGraw-Hill, New York,706-756.
Phelan JP, Smith CV, Small M. Amniotic fluid volume assessment with four quadrant technique at 36-42 weeks of gestation. J Repod Med 1987;32(7):540-2.
Pennell CE, Jacobsson B, Williams SM, Buus RM, Muglia LJ, Dolan SM, et al. Genetic epidemiologic studies of preterm birth: guidelines for research. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;196(2):107-18.
Kramer MS. Determinants of LBW, Methodological assessment and meta-analysis. WHO Bull. 1987; 65(5):663-737.
World Health Organization (WHO), Hemoglobin Concentrations for the Diagnosis of Anaemia and Assessment of Severity, Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland, 2011.
Seshiah V, Das AK, Balaji V, Joshi SR, Parikh MN, Gupta S. Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group. Gestational diabetes mellitus-guidelines. J Assoc Physicians India. 2006;54:622-8.
National Family Health Survey:4 State Fact Sheet Telangana Available at http://rchiips.org/NFHS/pdf/NFHS4/TG_FactSheet.pdf
Gazala Yasmin, Aruna Kumar, Bharti Parihar. Teenage Pregnancy:Its Impact on maternal and fetal outcome. Int J Sci Study. 2014,1(6):9-13.
Dubashi SS, Wani R. Teenage pregnancy. Bombay Hosp J. 2008;50(2):236-9.
Mahavarkar SH, Madhu CK, Mule VD. A comparative study of teenage pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol,2008;28(6):604-7.
Althabe F, Moore JL, Gibbons L, Berrueta M, Goudar SS, Chomba E, et al. Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in adolescent pregnancies: The Global Network’s Maternal Newborn Health Registry study. Reproduct Health. 2015;12(2):S8.
Mukhopadhyay P, Chaudhuri RN, Paul B. Hospital-based perinatal outcomes and complications in teenage pregnancy in India. J Health, Population, Nutrit. 2010;28(5):494.
Bacci S, Bartolucci F, Pieroni L. A causal analysis of mother's education on birth inequalities. arXiv preprint arXiv:12. 2012.