Effect of hypovitaminosis D and its related factors in pregnant women and their newborns


  • Amrita Sandhu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
  • Ruchira Nautiyal Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
  • Vinit Mehrotra Department of Biochemistry, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
  • Sanober Wasim Department of Pediatrics, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India




Alkaline phosphatase, Calcium, Parathyroid hormone, Vitamin D


Background: Maternal and fetal vitamin D deficiency has nowadays emerged as a frequent morbidity. Adequate vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy are necessary to maintain neonatal calcium homeostasis, bone maturation and mineralization. Objectives of this study were to evaluate serum vitamin D concentration in mothers and its correlation with neonatal cord blood vitamin D at the time of delivery and to study the impact of hypovitaminosis on neonatal anthropometry. Effect of related factors like calcium (Ca), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) on maternal vitamin D levels were to be evaluated.

Methods: Cross sectional study was done on a total of 220 healthy uncomplicated antenatal females with singleton pregnancy attending labor room at the time of delivery. Maternal and neonatal cord blood samples were drawn in the delivery room and analyzed. Neonatal anthropometry was recorded. Correlations among various maternal and neonatal factors were studied.

Results: Widespread vitamin D deficiency was observed in expectant subjects and neonates with 70.91% having deficient levels which were also reflected in newborns (71.82%). Maternal ALP (r= -0.5503, p=0.000) bears a weak negative correlation (p<0.05), maternal serum Ca positive correlation (r = 0.7486, p=0.000) and plasma PTH levels a negative correlation (r = -2.084, p=0.000) with hypovitaminosis. No significant correlation was observed between neonatal anthropometry and vitamin D levels.

Conclusions: High prevalence of hypovitaminosis was observed among pregnant women and their neonates in this study. A positive linear relationship was seen between maternal and cord blood vitamin D (r 0.974, p 0.0001).


Gropper SS. Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. 4th ed. ed. Thomson/Wadsworth: Belmont, CA, 2005.

Bikle D. Non-classic actions of vitamin D. J Clinic Endocrinol Metabol. 2009;94(1):26-34.

Wei SQ, Audibert F, Hidiroglou N, Sarafin K, Julien P, Wu Y, Luo ZC, Fraser WD. Longitudinal vitamin D status in pregnancy and the risk of pre‐eclampsia. BJOG: Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012;119(7):832-9.

Senti J, Thiele DK, Anderson CM. Maternal vitamin D status as a critical determinant in gestational diabetes. J Obstet, Gynecol Neonat Nursing. 2012;41(3):328-38.

Kalra P, Das V, Agarwal A, Kumar M, Ramesh V, Bhatia E, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on neonatal mineral homeostasis and anthropometry of the newborn and infant. Brit J Nutrition. 2012;108(6):1052-8.

Camargo CA, Ingham T, Wickens K, Thadhani RI, Silvers KM, Epton MJ et al, New Zealand Asthma and Allergy Cohort Study Group. Vitamin D status of newborns in New Zealand. British J Nutrition. 2010;104(7):1051-7.

Beck-Nielsen SS, Brock-Jacobsen B, Gram J, Brixen K, Jensen TK. Incidence and prevalence of nutritional and hereditary rickets in southern Denmark. Europ J Endocrinol. 2009;160(3):491-7.

McGrath J. Does ‘imprinting’ with low prenatal vitamin D contribute to the risk of various adult disorders? Medical Hypothes. 2001;56(3):367-71.

Bowyer L, Catling‐Paull C, Diamond T, Homer C, Davis G, Craig ME. Vitamin D, PTH and calcium levels in pregnant women and their neonates. Clinic Endocrinol. 2009;70(3):372-7.

Gupta A. Vitamin D deficiency in India: prevalence, causalities and interventions. Nutri. 2014;6(2):729-75.

Hossein-nezhad A, Holick MF. Vitamin D for health: a global perspective. In Mayo clinic proceedings 2013;88(7):720-55.

Rajoria N, Gupta ML, Rajoria L, Rajoria NB. Study of Association Between Maternal 25–hydroxy Vitamin D3 Level and Neonatal Outcome. Develop. 2015;6(7):8-13.

Sahu M, Bhatia V, Aggarwal A, Rawat V, Saxena P, Pandey A et al. Vitamin D deficiency in rural girls and pregnant women despite abundant sunshine in northern India. Clinic Endocrinol. 2009;70(5):680-4.

Sachan A, Gupta R, Das V, Agarwal A, Awasthi PK, Bhatia V. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and their newborns in northern India. Am J Clinic Nutriti. 2005;81(5):1060-4.

Maghbooli Z, Hossein-Nezhad A, Shafaei AR, Karimi F, Madani FS, Larijani B. Vitamin D status in mothers and their newborns in Iran. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2007;7(1):1.






Original Research Articles