Study of pattern of nosocomial infections among post-operative patients following obstetrical and gynaecological surgeries in a tertiary care institute of northern India

Latika ., Smiti Nanda, Pushpa Dahiya, Sushila Chaudhary


Background: Hospital acquired infections (HAIs) are the major causes of morbidity and mortality, functional disability and financial burden among the patients admitted in hospitals. The nosocomial infection has thrown a big challenge to the health sector in both the developing and developed countries; therefore, it is important to put in place surveillance system for monitoring its incidence rate and planning early interventions for its prevention. The aim and objective of the study was to study the socio demographic profile of the patients who underwent Obstetrical and Gynecological surgeries and to identify the risk factors and causative organisms associated with the post-operative nosocomial infection and pattern of antibiotics sensitivity.

Methods: It was a record based retrospective study carried out in a tertiary care referral institute. The case files of all post-operative patients from January 2015 to July 2015 were retrieved from the Medical Record department and an extensive analysis was carried out.

Results: It was found that majority of the patients (75%) with nosocomial infection were in the age group of 20-35 years and all were married. Most of them (72%) were from the rural background. It was observed that around 9% patients reported nosocomial infection after emergency laparotomy procedure as compared to 8% of patients after elective procedure.

Conclusions: In this study it was found that surgical site infection (SSI) was most common nosocomial infection followed by Urinary tract infection. The majority of surgical site infections can be prevented by the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative phases of care.


Antibacterial, Hospital acquired infections, Surgical site infection, UTI

Full Text:



Kamat US, Ferreira AM, Savio R, Motghare DD. Antimicrobial resistance among nosocomial isolate in a teaching hospital in Goa. Indian J Comm Med. 2008;33:89-92.

Endalafer N, Gebre-Selassie S, Kotisso B. Nosocomial bacterial infections in a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia. J Infect Prev. 2011;12:38-43.

Graves N. The cost of hospital acquired infections. Unit Costs of Health and Social Care. 2000:25-27.

Morgan AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Jarvis WR. The hospital infection control practices Advisory Committee: A guideline for prevention of surgical site infection. Infect Control Hospital Epidemiol. 1999;20(4):247-78.

Myles TD, Gooch J, Santolaya J. Obesity as an independent risk factor for infectious morbidity in patients who undergo cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100:959-64.

Naumann RW, Hauth JC, Owen J, Hodgkins PM, Lincoln T. Subcutaneous tissue approximation in relation to wound disruption after caesarean delivery in obese women. Obstet Gynecol. 1995;85:412-6.

Chelmow D, Huang E, Strohbehn K. Closure of the subcutaneous dead space and wound disruption after cesarean delivery. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2002;11:403-8.

Larsen John W, Hager W, Livengood Charles H, Hoyme Udo. Guideline for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of post operative infections. Infect Obstet Gynecol. 2003;11:65-70.

Patel SM, Patel MH, Patel SD, Soni ST, Kinariwala DM, Vegad MM. Surgical site infections: incidence and risk factors in a tertiary care hospital, western India. Natl J Commun Med. 2012;3(2):193-6.

Satyanarayana V, Prashanth HV, Basavaraj B, Kavyashree AN. Study of surgical site infections in abdominal surgeries. J Clin Diagn Res. 2011;5(October (5)):935-9.

Sanou J, Traore SS, Lankoande J, Ouedraogo RM, Sanou A. Survey of nosocomial infection prevalence in the surgery department of the Central National Hospital of Ouagadougou. Dakar Med. 1999;44:105-8.

Jahan I, Siddiqui O, Ahmed SU, Joarder AI, Faruque S, Imdad S, et al. Wound infection in surgery department in BSMMU: A study of 100 cases. J Bangladesh Soc Anaesthesiol. 2011;24(2):65-9.

Shittu AO. A study of wound infections in two health institutions in lle-llf, Nigeria. Afr J Biomed Res. 2002;5:97-102.

Messele G, Woldemedhin Y, Demissie M, Mamo K, Geyid A. Common causes of nosocomial infections and their susceptibility patterns in two hospitals in Addis Ababa. Ethiop J Health Biomed Sci. 2009;2(1):3-8.

Gedebou ME, Kronvall G, Habte‐Gabr EY, Ringertz SI. The bacteriology of nosocomial infections at Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa. Acta Pathologica Microbiologica Scandinavica Series B: Microbiology. 1987;95(1‐6):331-6.

Tesfahunegn Z, Asrat D, Woldeamanuel Y, Estifanos K. Bacteriology of surgical site and catheter related urinary tract infections among patients admitted in Mekelle Hospital. Ethiop Med J. 2009;47:117-27.