A study to evaluate serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 and calcium levels in maternal and cord blood and their effect on pregnancy outcome

Radha B. P. Thangappah, Ursula Sampson, Amrin Azad, Rathna Arumugam, Smriti Anand, Ponnalagan Karunakaran


Background: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant mothers and their neonates and to study the effect of vitamin D deficiency on maternal and perinatal outcome.

Methods: This prospective cohort study conducted in a teaching hospital included 223 pregnant mothers and their offspring born in 2017. Detailed history was taken to ascertain the causes of vitamin D deficiency.   vitamin D3 and calcium levels were estimated in maternal and cord blood samples. To study the association between the vitamin D status and the various maternal and neonatal parameters.

Results: 91.9 % of women were house wives involved in indoor activities. Pre-eclampsia and GDM were seen in 4.5% of cases each. 5.41% were obese and 84%  were of medium complexion,  and 8% were  dark. 93.7% were non- vegetarians,  and fish, egg and milk consumption was adequate in 61.3% , 64% and 71% respectively. Only 5.40% of women had adequate exposure to sunlight.  The mean birth weight was 3.08± 0.36 Kg. and 14 babies were admitted to NICU for neonatal asphyxia.77.40% had deficient levels of vitamin D  <20 ng/ml. Only four pregnant mothers (1.8%) had sufficient levels vitamin D. There was no statistically significant association between vitamin D deficiency and various maternal and neonatal parameters.

Conclusions: This study has shown that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among south Indian pregnant mothers and their newborn is very high and the ways to improve the vitamin D status among pregnant mothers should be looked at.


Calcium, Maternal and perinatal outcome, Vitamin D deficiency

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