DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20190494

Prevalence of anemia during pregnancy and its association with adverse perinatal outcomes in Madhya Pradesh, India

Divya Sinha, Swati Shrivastava

Abstract


Background: The prevalence of anemia in India is increasing day by day and covers almost one third population. Anemia during pregnancy leads many perinatal complications such as miscarriage, abortion and still birth. So, the aim of the study was to determine prevalence of anemia during pregnancy and its association with adverse perinatal outcomes in region of Madhya Pradesh.

Methods: The study population consisted of 15-49 years women of reproductive age group from the state Madhya Pradesh, India, which were taken from the National Family Healthy Survey-4 (2015-16). Various perinatal outcomes along with age and residence was cross tabulated and frequencies were generated. The chi-square statistic was used to test the significance.

Results: In severe anaemic women prevalence of miscarriage (74.0%) was statistically significantly higher (p<0.05) as comparison to other forms of anemia. Also, in the age group 25-29 years and rural population prevalence of miscarriage (40% and 55%) was highly significant (p<0.001) as comparison to other age group and urban population.

Conclusions: The severity of anemia is directly proportional to poor and adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancy.


Keywords


Anemia, Pregnancy, Perinatal outcomes

Full Text:

PDF

References


Black RE, Victora CG, Walker SP, Bhutta ZA, Christian P, De Onis M, et al. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet, 2013;382(9890):427-51.

World Health Organization. Iron deficiency anemia. assessment, prevention, and control. A guide for programme managers. 2001:47-62.

Vanamala VG, Aruna Rachel A ,Pakyanadhan S, Somavathi. Incidence and outcome of anemia in pregnant women: a study in a tertiary care centre. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2018;7(2):462-66.

Msuya SE, Hussein TH, Uriyo J, Sam NE, Stray-Pedersen B. Anaemia among pregnant women in northern Tanzania: prevalence, risk factors and effect on perinatal outcomes. Tanzania J Health Res.2011;13(1) 33-9.

Okube OT, Mirie W, Odhiambo E, Sabina W and Habtu M. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Anaemia among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in the Second and Third Trimesters at Pumwani Maternity Hospital, Kenya. Open J Obstet Gynecol, 2016;6(01):16-27.

Brooker S, Hotez PJ, Bundy DAP, Hookworm-related anaemia among pregnant women: a systematic review,” PLOS Neglected Trop Dis. 2008;2(9):291.

McClure EM, Meshnick SR, Mungai P, Malhotra I, King CL, Goldenberg RL et al. The association of parasitic infections in pregnancy and maternal and fetal anemia: a cohort study in coastal Kenya. PLOS Neglected Trop Dis. 2014;8(2):2724.

Ononge S, Campbell O, Mirembe F. Haemoglobin status and predictors of anaemia among pregnant women in Mpigi, Uganda. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7(1):712.

Alem M, Enawgaw B, Gelaw A, Kena T, Seid M, Olkeba Y. Prevalence of anemia and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Azezo Health Center Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. J. Interdiscip Histopathol. 2013, 1(3):137-44.

Balarajan Y, Ramakrishnan U, Özaltin E, Shankar AH, Subramanian SV. Anaemia in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet. 2011;378(9809):2123-35.

Adamu AL, Crampin A, Kayuni N, Amberbir A, Koole O, Phiri A, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for anemia severity and type in Malawian men and women: urban and rural differences. Population Health Met. 2017;15(1):12.

Kassebaum NJ, Jasrasaria R, Naghavi M, Wulf SK, Johns N, Lozano R, et al. A systematic analysis of global anemia burden from 1990 to 2010. Blood. 2014;123(5):615-24.

Toteja GS, Singh P, Dhillon BS, Saxena BN, Ahmed FU, Singh RP et al. Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women and adolescent girls in 16 districts of India. Food Nutri Bullet. 2006;27(4):311-5.

Hashim N, Farooqi M, Naqvi S, Jaffery HF, Anemia; moderate to severe during pregnancy. Prof Med J. 2014,21(2):247-52.

Ransom, E.I.; Elder, L.K. Nutrition of Women and Adolescent Girls: Why It Matters; Population ReferenceBureau: Washington, DC, USA, 2003. Available at https://www.prb.org/nutritionofwomenandadolescentgirlswhyitmatters/

Rahmati S, Delpisheh A, Parizad N, Sayehmiri K, Maternal anemia and pregnancy outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Pediatr. 2016;4(8):3323–3342.

Lone FW, Qureshi RN, Emanuel F. Maternal anaemia and its impact on perinatal outcome. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9(4):486–490.

Gomes da Costa A, Vargas S, Clode N, Graça LM. Prevalence and risk factors for iron deficiency anemia and iron depletion during pregnancy: A prospective study. Acta Med Port. 2016:29(9):514-8.

Stevens GA, Finucane MM, De-Regil LM, Paciorek CJ, Flaxman SR, Branca F et al, Nutrition Impact Model Study Group. Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995-2011: a systematic analysis of population-representative data. Lancet Global Health. 2013;1(1):e16-25.

Chang SC, O'Brien KO, Nathanson MS, Mancini J, Witter FR. Hemoglobin concentrations influence birth outcomes in pregnant African-American adolescents. Journal Nutri. 2003;133(7):2348-55.

Kalaivani K. Prevalence and consequences of anaemia in pregnancy. Indian J Med Res. 2009;130(5):627‑33.

Ivan EA, MangaiarkkarasiA.. Evaluation of anaemia in booked antenatal mothers during the last trimester. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013;7(11):2487-90.

Singh R, Chauhan R, Nandan D, Singh H, Gupata SC, Bhatnagar M. Morbidity profile of women during pregnancy: A hospital record-based study in Western UP. IJCH. 2012;24(4):342‑6.

Allen LH. Anaemia and iron deficiency: Effects on pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(5):1280‑4.

Nair M, Choudhury MK, Choudhury SS, Kakoty SD, Sarma UC, Webster P, et al. Association between maternal anaemia and pregnancy outcomes: A cohort study in Assam, India. BMJ Glob Health 2016;1:e000026.

Cheema HK, Bajwa BS, Kaur K, Joshi H. Prevalence and possible risk factors of anaemia in different trimesters of pregnancy. IJCMR. 2016;3(4):1194-7.

Dey S, Goswami S, Goswami M. Prevalence of anaemia in women of reproductive age in Meghalaya: a logistic regression analysis. Turk J Med Sci. 2010;40(5):783-9.

Seshadri S. Prevalence of micronutrient deficiency particularly of iron, zinc and folic acid in pregnant women in South East Asia. Br J Nutr. 2001;85(2):S87-92.

Adam I, Khamis AH, Elbashir MI. Prevalence and risk factors for anaemia in pregnant women of eastern Sudan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005; 99(10):739-43.

Ayoya MA, Spiekermann-Brouwer GM, Traore AK, Stoltzfus RJ, Garza C. Determinants of anemia among pregnant women in Mali. Food Nutr Bull. 2006; 27(1):3-11.

Baig-Ansari N, Badruddin SH, Karmaliani R, Harris H, Jehan I, Pasha O, et al Anemia prevalence and risk factors in pregnant women in an urban area of Pakistan. Food Nutr Bull. 2008;29(2):132-9.