Study of placental location and pregnancy outcome
Keywords:Abnormal outcome, Lateral placenta, Neonatal outcome, Placental location, Pregnancy outcome
Background: Placental location can be estimated easily using ultrasonogram by 16 weeks. It can be classified based on its location into central and lateral. Central can be anterior or posterior. Lateral can be left lateral or right lateral. Placental location has been attributed to both normal and abnormal pregnancy and neonatal outcomes.
Methods: This is a prospective cohort study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology which comprised of 450 singleton gestations between 18 and 24 weeks. The primary objective is to determine the association between placental location and pregnancy outcome and secondary objective is to find out the association between placental location and neonatal outcome. The study population was divided into two groups – central and lateral. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 20, Chi square test and independent two sample t-test.
Results: The frequency of central placenta was 377 (83.8%) and lateral placenta in 73 (16.2%). Central placentation had an abnormal outcome in 182(48.3%), lateral placentas with abnormal outcome were 44(60.3%). Abnormal maternal outcomes like hypertensive disorders (33.3%), Intra Uterine Growth Restriction (10.2%), Antepartum haemorrhage (25%), Preterm birth (16.3%) were more in lateral placentation. The number of central placentas having NICU admissions were 62(16.4%) and lateral placenta with NICU admissions were 19(26%).
Conclusions: There is a significant association between lateral placentation and abnormal pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Second trimester ultrasound can be used as non-invasive predictor of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes.
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