Published: 2019-03-26

Prevalence of anti-sperm antibodies, risk factors associated and their impact on spermatobioscopy in infertile men

Ignacio Aboytes Cardeña, Andrea C. Andrade Rodríguez, Edgar O. Ruiz Treviño, Junior J. Araiza Navarro, Enrique R. Muñoz, Enrique R. Muñoz, Armando Roque Sánchez, Patricia A. González


Background: The first immunological correlation with male infertility was reported in 1954 by Wilson and Rumke with the identification of anti-sperm antibodies. The prevalence of anti-sperm antibodies in infertile men varies from 9%-36%, the main cause being the loss of the blood-testicular barrier and otherwise the association with chronic inflammation. It has been shown that immune infertility is found in 15% of patients with varicocele.

Methods: A transversal comparative study was carried out with 360 infertile men who were tested for anti-sperm antibodies between January 2011 and July 2018. Two groups were integrated; Group 1, infertile men with positive anti-sperm antibodies >50%, group 2, infertile men with negative anti-sperm <50%. Seminogram parameters were evaluated according to the WHO 5th edition and associated risk factors with anti-sperm antibodies.

Results: 360 infertile men were evaluated during the study, 42 were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria, the prevalence of anti-sperm antibodies was 14.5%. Group 1; n=46 (14.5%) and group 2, n=272 (85.5%), the clinical characteristics and the hormonal profile were compared at study admission without significant difference. There was a significant decrease in progressive motility in group 1 (38.7±23.8) vs group 2 (50.1±18.9) p=0.03. Analyzing the risk factors, varicocele was found to be significant 23.7%, OR 2.14 (1.27-3.61) p=0.004 as well as retractable testicle 26.4%, OR 2.13 (1.23-3.70) p= 0.008.

Conclusions: The affectation of motility was confirmed, which leads to the suspect varicocele and retractable testicle as risk factors.


Anti-sperm antibody, Chronic prostatitis, Infection, Inflammation, Male infertility, MAR test, Seminal parameters, Varicocelectomy

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