DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20191018

Placental thickness and its correlation with estimated foetal weight: a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care centre in South India

Goldy S. J., Sheba Rosatte Victor, Bewin Oral J., Adaline Thangam, Usha Christopher, Adlin Rose

Abstract


Background: The placenta is a multifaceted organ which modulates and modifies the maternal environment resulting in foetal development. It could be assumed that a healthy placenta culminates in a healthy foetus. Hence the morphometric analysis of a placenta during sonogram is inevitable. The aim of the study was to estimate the relationship between placental thickness and estimated foetal weight.

Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study and included 450 antenatal women attending the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Tirunelveli Medical College from May 2013 to May 2014. These women had regular cycles with a known Last menstrual period and a singleton foetus. After ethics committee approval, meticulous history including age, parity, demographic factors and past history were recorded. After obtaining consent, these women underwent placental thickness measurement between 14-40 weeks of pregnancy.

Results: In the study mean placental thickness between the ranges of 11-49mm was 28.7mm and mean estimated foetal weight was 1.421kilogram. The correlation between the two was 0.943. Hence the positive correlation between the placental thickness and foetal weight is confirmed (p value <0.001).

Conclusions: Determining the estimated foetal weight is an important reason for doing a sonogram, especially in third trimester. Placental thickness measured at the level of umbilical cord insertion can serve as an additional parameter in estimating foetal weight in addition to the foetal parameters, since there is a linear correlation between placental thickness and foetal weight.


Keywords


Estimated foetal weight, Placenta, Placental thickness, Umbilical cord insertion, Ultrasonogram

Full Text:

PDF

References


Burton GJ, Woods AW, Jauniaux E, Kingdom JC. Rheological and physiological consequences of conversion of the maternal spiral arteries for uteroplacental blood flow during human pregnancy. Placenta. 2009;30:473-82.

Ohagwu CC, Abu PO, Ezeokeke UO, Ugwu AC. Relationship between placental thickness and growth parameters in normal Nigerian foetus. Afr J Biotechnol. 2009;8(2):133-8.

Smith NC, Smith APM. Obstetric and gynecological ultrasound made easy. 2nd ed. Elsevier, London; 2006:123.

Moore KL. The placenta. In: Moore KL, Persaud TVN, eds. The developing human: Clinically oriented embryology. 7th ed. WB Saunders: Philadelphia; 1993:110-118.

Ellery PM, Cindrova-Davies T, Jauniaux E, Ferguson-Smith AC, Burton GJS. Evidence for transcriptional activity in the syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta. Placenta. 2009;30:329-34.

Bauer MK, Harding JE, Bassett NS, Breier BH, Oliver MH, Gallaher BH, et al. Fetal growth and placental function. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1998;140:115-20.

Faber JJ, Thornburg KL. Placental Physiology: Structure and Function of Fetomaternal Exchange. New York, Raven Press, 1983.

Hafner E, Metzenbauer M, Ho¨finger D, Stonek F, Schuchter K, Waldhör T, et al. Comparison between three-dimensional placental volume at 12 weeks and uterine artery impedance/notching at 22 weeks in screening for pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia and foetal growth restriction in a low-risk population. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006;27:652-7.

Kliman HJ. Behind every healthy baby is a healthy placenta. In: Berman MR, ed. Parenthood Lost. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey; 2001:130-131.

Elchalal U, Ezra Y, Levi Y, Bar-Oz B, Yanai N, Intrator O, et al. Sonographically thick placenta: a marker for increased perinatal risk-a prospective cross-sectional study. Placenta. 2000;21:268-72.

Afrakhteh M, Moeini A, Taheri MS, Haghighatkhah HR. Correlation between placental thickness in the second and third trimester and foetal weight. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2013;35(7):317-22.

Balla EA, Ahmed MS, Ayad CE, Ahmed AS. Prediction of foetal growth by measuring the placental thickness using ultrasonography. J Gynecol Obstet. 2014;2(2):26-31.

Warsof SL, Wolf P, Coulehan J, Queenan JT. Comparison of foetal weight estimation formulas with and without head measurements. Obstet Gynecol. 1986;67:569-73.

Roy M, Gajbe UL, Singh BR, Thute P. Morphometric measurement of foetal femur length for the prediction of gestational age in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy by ultrasonography. J Datta Meghe Inst Med Sci Univ. 2017;12:187-90.