Role of vitamin D in prevention of adverse maternal and perinatal outcome: a randomized controlled trial

Sujatha M. S., Shruthi K. R., Neelaharika .


Background: Vitamin  D  deficiency  is  thought  to  be   common among  pregnant  women  and  is  associated  with  adverse  maternal  and  perinatal  outcome. Maternal  and foetal  outcome  in  pregnant  women  with  standard  obstetric  care  was compared with   women with  additional  vitamin D  supplementation.

Methods: A randomized comparative  study  was  conducted  on  100  patients attending  the  antenatal  clinic at JSS Medical College and Hospital, Mysuru, Karnataka, India   who were randomly  grouped   into  group A (50 patients) who  received  standard  obstetric care  (500 mg calcium+200 IU vitamin D)  and  group  B (50 patients)  who  received  in  addition  to  standard  obstetric  care   supplementation  of   Vitamin  D  1000 IU/day starting  from  14  weeks  of  gestation  till  delivery.  Vitamin  D  levels  were assessed  in  both  the  groups  with  onset  of  labour  by  chemiluminescence immunoassay  and  obstetric  and  neonatal  outcomes  in  both  groups  were compared.

Results: High  incidence  of vitamin  D  deficiency  (96%)  in  standard  care  group  compared  to  vitamin  D supplemented  group  ( p= <0.0001)  was  noted. The  study  showed  significant  reduction  in  risk  of  Preeclampsia (P=0.004),  GDM  (P= 0.02)  and  primary  caesarean  delivery  (0.008)  in  Vitamin  D  supplemented  group. Significantly  high  birth  weight  in  vitamin  D supplemented   group,  an  increase  in  320 grams  in  birth  weight  was  noted  (P <0.0001).

Conclusions: There is a high incidence of subnormal vitamin D levels in antenatal women and is associated with maternal and neonatal adverse effects. Measuring Vitamin D levels and appropriate supplementation of higher dose of vitamin D is an effective strategy in prevention of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.


Birth weight, Gestational diabetes mellitus, Primary caesarean delivery, Preecampsia, Vitamin D

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