Prevalence of maternal periodontitis and its association with preterm and low birth weight infants: a hospital-based study
Keywords:Low birth weight, Maternal periodontitis, Preterm delivery
Background: Preterm deliveries and low birth are important causes of infant mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal periodontitis and preterm and low birth weight at delivery and to correlate the severity of periodontitis with obstetric outcome.
Methods: This was a prospective observational study conducted in Outpatient Department of Tertiary Care Hospital. Pregnant women who had regular antenatal checkup at were screened clinically for periodontitis. Those who were diagnosed with periodontitis and satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria were considered as cases (n=45) and equal number of pregnant women without periodontal disease (n=45) were included in the study as controls. These patients were followed up and gestational age at delivery and baby’s birth weight was noted and correlated to the maternal periodontal status.
Results: The prevalence of maternal periodontitis was found to be 11.4%. Mean age, socioeconomic status and educational status was comparable. 33.3%, 40% of the cases v/s 17.8%, 24.4% of controls had preterm deliveries and LBW infants respectively. 26.8% of cases with mild periodontitis and all cases of moderate and severe periodontitis had preterm birth. Additionally, 34.1% of cases with mild periodontitis and all cases with moderate and severe periodontitis had low birth weight infants (p=0.02).
Conclusions: Maternal periodontitis is found to be associated with preterm and low birth weight deliveries. The severity of periodontitis is inversely related to gestational age at delivery and birth weight of infant. Thus, periodontitis is suggested to be a modifiable risk factor for preterm and low birth deliveries.
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