Study of the magnitude of premenstrual syndrome in a tertiary care institute in Pondicherry, India

Jessy Varghese, Vijaya Koothan, V. Sujaritha


Background: Premenstrual syndrome is cyclical physical and behavioural symptoms that appear in days preceding menstruation and interfere with work or life style followed by a symptom free interval. The common affective and somatic symptoms seen are mood swings, irritability, anxiety, breast tenderness, weight gain and abdominal bloating. The present study was done to detect premenstrual syndrome and encourage students to seek treatment which would improve quality of life both socially and academically.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of three months from November 2018 to January 2019 among medical students in a tertiary care institute in Pondicherry. A detailed questionnaire regarding premenstrual symptoms and screening for depression was obtained from all study subjects. Diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome was done if there were at least one affective symptom like mood swings, insomnia, anxiety and one somatic symptom like abdominal bloating, breast complaints and weight gain.

Results: Total of 207 students were screened out of whom 155 (74.87%) students were found to have premenstrual syndrome. 41 students did not have the same, 11 students were excluded as they were having endocrine disorders like polycystic ovarian syndrome and thyroid abnormalities. 60.6% had mild 38.4% moderate 4.5% had severe premenstrual syndrome. Commonest symptoms were mood swings 81.9% followed by anxiety 80% and fatigue 71.6% breast complaints and joint pains were seen in 71% equally so also abdominal bloating and weight gain which was seen in 67%. Depression was found in 52.9% of the students.

Conclusions: Premenstrual syndrome is prevalent among medical students commonly and detecting it and encouraging students to seek treatment will help them perform better socially and academically.


Depression, Neurotransmitter, Premenstrual syndrome

Full Text:



Fritz MA, Speroff L. Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility. 8th Edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia; 2011:567-8.

American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Premenstrual Syndrome. ACOG practice bulletin. No.15. Washington: The College; 2000:1-9.

Rumana AM, Sudharani M, Kallupurackal SJX, Ramya V, Nagendra GMR, Suryakantha AH. Prevalence of premenstrual syndrome among medical students. Natl J Community Med. 2017;8(6):292-4.

Pearlstein T, Steiner M. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: burden of illness and treatment update. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2008;33(4):291-301.

Anitha N, Naveen CG. Study of depression among medical students. IOSR J Dent Med Sci. 2018;17(4):57-61.

Zaafrane F, Faleh R, Melki W, Sakouhi M, Gaha L. An overview of premenstrual syndrome. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod. 2007;36(7):42-52.

Htoo HKS, Than NN, Htay L, Mila NNH, Khine P, Soe M. Premenstrual symptoms and dysmenorrhea associated with daily routine activities among female undergraduate medical students. Br J Med Med Res. 2017;21:1-9.

Karnamurthy AN, Ambika S. Assess the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome among adolescent girls at SRM College of Nursing, SRM University, Kattankulathur. Asian J Pharmac Clin Res. 2017;10(5):202-5.

Joshi JV, Pandey SN, Galvankar P, Gogate JA. Prevalence of premenstrual symptoms: Preliminary analysis and brief review of management strategies. J Mid-life Health. 2010;1:30-4.

Bakhshani NM, Mousavi MN, Khodabandeh G. Prevalence and severity of premenstrual symptoms among Iranian female university students. J Pak Med Assoc. 2009;59(4):205-8.

Zehra S, Azhar A, Arif A, Ansari B, Qureshi MA. Premenstrual syndrome symptoms (PMS) and prevalence among university students in Karachi, Pakistan. Int Res J Pharm. 2013;4(4):113-6.

Myint T, Edessa OD, Sawhsarkapaw. Premenstrual syndrome among female university students in Thailand. Au J T. 2006;9(3):158-62.

Shabbir MH, Bashir U. Depression among medical students. J Psychol Clin Psychiatry. 2016;6(5):00371.

Ranjana M, Aditya PS, Supriti G. A study on premenstrual syndrome among adolescent girl students in an urban area of West Bengal. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2015;4(4):1012-5.