DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20193034

Knowledge and awareness of the cause, prevention and control of cervical cancer amongst female undergraduates and faculty of health sciences: a cross sectional survey

Abhishek Tandon, Snigdha Raja, Mangala M. Pai, B. Unnikrishnan, Tanuj Kanchan

Abstract


Background: Carcinoma cervix is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, and the most common in India. In this study, the current knowledge of female undergraduates and faculty of health sciences regarding the various parameters like risk factors, symptoms, screening tests and vaccinations pertaining to cervical cancer was assessed.

Methods: A cross-sectional, self-administered anonymous questionnaire-based survey was carried out, in a medical college in Mangalore, which included 260 staff and students. Non random sampling was done and the study was carried out only after gaining institutional Ethical community approval and written informed consent from the subjects.

Results: Majority of the participants 185 (71.4%) were aware that cervical cancer is one of the most wide- spread gynecological cancers in Asia. The awareness of causative agents of cervical cancer was known to 53.9% of the undergraduates and 50% of the faculty members. 73% of the total study groups have heard of HPV and around 68% agreed that it was detectable. 71% of the study sample had heard about the Pap smear test and 42% have undergone the test. The questions pertaining to the preventive measures of cervical cancer had good faculty preponderance with 91.8% giving a positive response. 84.1% of the students and 79.5% of the faculty members knew that abnormal vaginal bleeding was a symptom.

Conclusions: In this study an attempt has been made to study the correlates of knowledge of cervical cancer in a cohort which consisted of health care undergraduate and faculty. Majority of our study group was well aware of the various risk factors of cervical cancer and its preventable nature however awareness regarding the association between diets, multiple pregnancies and use of tobacco was poor.


Keywords


Cervical cancer, Carcinoma cervix, HPV

Full Text:

PDF

References


Consolidated report of hospital based cancer registries 2001-3, national cancer registry program. New Delhi: Indian Council of Medical Research; 2007. Available at: http://ncdirindia.org/NCRP/ Annual_Reports.aspx. Assessed 18 October 2012.

Goldsmith MR, Bankhead CR, Kehoe ST, Marsh G, Austoker J. Information and cervical screening: a qualitative study of women’s awareness, understanding and information needs about HPV. J Med Screen. 2007;14:29-33.

Pitts M, Clarke T. Human papillomavirus infections and risks of cervical cancer: what do women know? Health Educ Res. 2002;17:706-14.

Castellsague X, Bosch FX, Munoz N, Meijer CJ, Shah KV. Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1105-12.

Castle PE, Wacholder S, Lorincz AT, Scott DR, Sherman ME. A prospective study of high-grade cervical neoplasia risk among human papillomavirus-infected women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94:1406-14.

Appleby P, Beral V, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Colin D, Franceschi S, et al. Carcinoma of the cervix and tobacco smoking: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 13,541 women with carcinoma of the cervix and 23,017 women without carcinoma of the cervix from 23 epidemiological studies. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:1481-95.

Munoz N, Franceschi S, Bosetti C, Moreno V, Herrero R. Role of parity and human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: the IARC multicentric case-control study. Lancet. 2002;359:1093-101.

Appleby P, Beral V, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Colin D, Franceschi S. Cervical cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data for 16,573 women with cervical cancer and 35,509 women without cervical cancer from 24 epidemiological studies. Lancet. 2007;370:1609-21.

Joy T, Sathian B, Bhattaria C, Chacko J. Awareness of cervix cancer risk factors in educated youth: A cross-secional, questionnaire based survey in India, Nepal and Srilanka. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prevent. 2011;12:1707-12.

Saha A, Nag Chaudhury A, Bhowmik P, Chatterjee R. Awareness of cervical cancer among female students of premier colleges in Kolkata, India. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prevent. 2010;11:1085-90.

Ali SF, Ayub S, Manzoor NF, Azim S, Afif M. Knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer and its prevention amongst interns and nursing staff in tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. PLoS ONE. 2010;5(6):e11059.

Pandey D, Vanya V, Bhagat S, Binu VS, Shetty J. Awareness and Attitude towards Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine among Medical Students in a Premier Medical School in India. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40619.

Catherine Mc C, David P, Pierre MT, Michel B, Anderson SD, Patrick P. Awareness of HPV and cervical cancer prevention among Cameroonian healthcare workers. BMC Women’s Health. 2011;11:45.

Singh E, Seth S, Rani V, Srivastava DK. Awareness of cervical cancer screening among nursing staff in a tertiary institution of rural India. J Gynecol Oncol. 2012;23(3):141-6.

Burkett BJ, Peterson CM, Birch LM. The relationship between contraceptives, sexual practices and cervical human papillomavirus infection among a college population. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992;45:1295-302.

Shah V, Vyas S, Singh A, Shrivastava M. Awareness and knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention among the nursing staff of a tertiary health institute in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; 2012.

Roy B, Tang TS. Cervical cancer screening in Kolkata, India: Beliefs and predictors of cervical cancer screening among women attending a women’s health clinic in Kolkata, India. J Cancer Educ. 2008;23:253-59.

Donders GG, Gabrovska M, Bellen G, Van Keirsbilck J, Van Den Bosch T. Knowledge of cervix cancer, human papilloma virus (HPV) and HPV vaccination at the moment of introduction of the vaccine in women in Belgium. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;277:291-8.

Chelimo C, Wouldes TA. Human papillomavirus knowledge and awareness among undergraduates in healthcare training in New Zealand; 2008. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19859090. Assessed on 20th October 2012.

Manhart LE, Koutsky LA. Do condoms prevent genital HPV infection, external genital warts, or cervical neoplasia? A meta-analysis. Sex Transm Dis. 2002;29:725-35.

Sandra Millon Underwood, Edith Ramsay-Johnson, Lois Browne, Natasha Caines, Ashanti Dean, Samantha Duval, et al. What Women in the United States Virgin Islands Still Want and Need to Know About HPV, Cervical Cancer, and Condom Use. J Natl Black Nurses Assoc. 2010;21(1):25-32.

Patrik KE Magnusson MSc, Postgraduate Student and Ulf B. Gyllensten PhD, Professor Section for Medical Genetics, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, S-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden Available online 4 April 2000. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/51839375_Awareness_of_Cervix_Cancer_Risk_Factors_in_Educated_Youth_A_Cross-Sectional_Questionnaire_Based_Survey_in_India_Nepal_and_Sri_Lanka. Assessed on 20th October 2012.

de Zelmanowicz MA, Hildesheim A. Family history of cancer as a risk factor for cervical carcinoma: a review of the literature. Papillomavirus Report. 2004;15(3):113-20.