Genital tuberculosis in infertile women: role of hysterolaparoscopy and tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction


  • Nikita Gandotra Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SMGS Jammu, J&K, India
  • Abhinav Sharma Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Critical Care, Jammu, J&K, India
  • Preeti Sharma Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, RPGMC Tanda, Himachal Pradesh, India



Genital tuberculosis, Tuberculosis Polymerase chain reaction


Background: Genital tuberculosis is an important cause of female infertility in developing countries like India. It is one of the major causes for severe tubal disease leading to infertility.

Methods: A prospective study was conducted in which 100 women presented to hospital with infertility were subjected to hystero-laparoscopy over 1 year. Endometrium sent for tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction (TB-PCR) and HPE and results were formulated.

Results: Out of 100 women, 28% were diagnosed with Genital tuberculosis (GTB) using accepted clinical criteria, TB-PCR and endometrial HPE. 25 of these 28 were diagnosed by hysterolaparoscopy (89.24%) alone, 16 by positive endometrial TB-PCR (57.14%) and another 2 by HPE (7.14%).

Conclusions: In country like ours where TB is endemic, a multi-pronged approach to diagnosis increases the chances of successfully diagnosing this destructive disease.


WHO Global TB Control Report. 20th edition. 2015. Available at: /global_report/gtb r15_main_text.pdf.

Bose M. Female genital tract tuberculosis: How long will it elude diagnosis? Indian J Med Res. 2011;134(1):13-4.

Figueroa-Damian R, Martinez-Velazco I, Villagrana- Zesati R. Tuberculosis of the female reproductivetract: effect on function. Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud. 1996;41(4):430-6.

Schaefer G. Female genital tuberculosis. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1976;19:223-39.

Sharma JB. Tuberculosis and obstetric and gynecological practice. In: Studd J, Tan SL, Chervenak FA, editors. Progress Obstet Gynaecol. 2008;18:395-427.

Sharma JB. Current diagnosis and management of female genital tuberculosis. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2015;65:362-71.

Baxi A. Genital tuberculosis in infertile women: assessment of endometrial TB PCR results with laparoscopic and hysteroscopic features. J Obstetrics Gynecol India. 2011:301-306.

Bhanu NV, Singh UB, Chakraborty M. Improved diagnostic value of PCR in the diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis leading to infertility. J Med Microbiol. 2005;54(Pt10):927-31.

Nayak KP, Mahapatra CP, Mallick JJ, Swain S, Mitra S, Sahoo J. Role of diagnostic hysterolaparoscopy in the evaluation of infertility: A retrospective study of 300 patients. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2012;6(1):32-4.

Shetty KS, Shetty H, Rai S. Laparoscopic evaluation of tubal factor in cases of infertility. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2013;2(3):410-3.

Vaid K, Mehra S, Verma M, Jain S, Sharma A, Bhaskaran S. Pan endoscopic approach “Hysterolaparoscopy” as an initial procedure in selected infertile women. J Clinic Diagnos Res. 2014;8(2):95-8.

Shah SJ, Shah AC, Trivedi YN. Study of combined Laparoscopic and Hysteroscopic findings in 100 cases of Infertility. NHL J Med Sci. 2014;3(2).

Mondal SK. A ten year study of female genital tuberculosis and impact on fertility. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc. 2009;48:52.

Shende P, Valecha SM, Gandhewar M, Dhingra D. Genital tuberculosis and infertility. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2017;6(8):3514-3517

Suman P, Bhavana B. Diagnostic value of PCR in female genital TB and its therapeutic implications. J Obstet Gynecol India. 2009;59(1):67-70.

Sharma JB, Roy KK, Pushparaj M, Kumar S, Malhotra N, Mittal S. Laparoscopic female genital tuberculosis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;278(4):359-64.

Neelam B, Mohanlal S, Namita K. Genital tuberculosis and its consequences on subsequent fertility. J Obstet Gynecol India. 2005;55(6):534-7.






Original Research Articles