Analysis of comorbidities among pregnant woman attending rural Medical College Hospital

Raja Sekhar Jalemu, Kasthuribai Sabbe, Grishma Jalemu


Background: In pregnancy Anaemia and Depression is an important factor associated with an increased risk of maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality, poor pregnancy outcomes, and impaired cognitive development. To assess prevalence and factors associated with anemia and Depression among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic.

Methods: A Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 284 pregnant women to at Rural Medical college hospital from June to August 2018. Data on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the study participants were collected using a Pretested structured questionnaire by interview and review of medical records. Binary Logistic regression analysis had been used to check for association between dependent and independent variables in all cases. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The prevalence of anemia was found to be11.6% (95 %CI; 7.8%-14.8%) and Depression was 8.6% Pregnant women in the second and third trimester [AOR (95% CI), 8.31 (1.24-55.45), and P=0.029] were more likely to be anemic when compared to pregnant women in their first trimester. Pregnant women who did not receive iron/folic acid supplementation [AOR (95%CI),4.03(1.49 10.92), and P=0.01] were more likely to be anemic when compared to pregnant to women who did take supplementations.

Conclusions: In this study the prevalence of anemia and Depression in pregnancy was low compared to the findings of others. Gestational age (trimester) and iron/folic acid supplementation were statistically associated with anemia.



Anemia, Antenatal, Depression, Iron folic acid supplementation, Pregnancy, Prevalence

Full Text:



Turgeon ML. Clinical Hematology: Theory and Procedures. Wilkins, a Wolters Kluwer business, 5th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams: 2012.

Rodak BF, Fritsma GA, Keohane EM. Hematology: Clinical Principles and Applications, 4th edition. Elsevier: Saunders; 2012.

Chandra S, Tripathi AK, Mishra S, Amzarul M, Vaish KA. Physiological changes in hematological parameters during pregnancy. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfusion. 2012;28(3):144-6.

Pavord S, Hunt B. The Obstetric Hematology Manual. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY: USA; 2018.

WHO. Haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity. Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System: Geneva, World Health Organization; 2011. Available at: bin.pdf.

Austin MP, Hadzi-Pavlovic D, Leader L, Saint K, Parker G: Maternal trait anxiety, depression and life event stress in pregnancy: relationships with infants temperament. Early Hum Dev. 2005;81:183-90.

Huizink AC, Mulder EJH, Robels de Medina PG, Visser GHA, Buitelaar JK: Is pregnancy anxiety a distinctive syndrome? Early Hum Dev. 2004;79:81-91.

Bennett HA, Einarson A, Taddio A, Koren G, Einarson TR. Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103:698-708.

Jufar AH, Zewde T. Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women attending antenatalcare atTikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital. J Hematol Thromboembol Dis. 2014;2(1):1-6.

Yohannes Abere FA. Pregnancy Anaemia Prevalence and Associated Factors among Women Attending Ante Natal Care in North Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. Reprod System Sexual Dis. 2014;3(3).

Melku M, Addis Z, Alem M, Enawgaw B. Prevalence and predictors of maternal anemia during pregnancy in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: an institutional based cross-sec-tionalstudy. Anemia. 2014:ArticleID108593.

Abdelgader EA, Diab TA, Kordofani AA, Abdalla SE. Hemoglobin level, RBCs Indices, and iron status in pregnant females in Sudan. Basic Res J Med Clin Sci. 2014;3(2):8-13.

Barooti E, Rezazadehkermani M, Sadeghirad B, Motaghipisheh S, Tayeri S, Arabi M. Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among Iranian pregnant women; a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Repro Infert. 2010;11(1):17-24.

Sukrat B, Suwathanapisate P, Siritawee S, Poungthong T, Phupongpankul K. The prevalenceof iron deficiency Anemia in pregnant women in Nakhonsawan, Thailand. J Med Asso Thailand. 2010;93(7):765-70.

Lokare P, Gattani P, Karanjekar V, Kulkarni A. A study of prevalence of anemia and sociodemographic factors associated with anemia among pregnant women in Aurangabad city, India. Annal Nigerian Med. 2012;6(1):30.

Nik RN, Mohd NS, Ismail IM. The rate and risk factors for anemia among pregnant mothers in jerteh Terengganu, Malaysia. J Comm Med Health Edu. 2012;2(1):2161-0711.

Baig-Ansari N, Badruddin SH, Karmaliani R. Anemia prevalence and risk factors in pregnant women in anurban area of Pakistan. Food Nut Bullet. 2008;29(2):132-9.

Ouédraogo S, Koura GK, Accrombessi MMK, Bodeau-Livinec F, Massougbodji A, Cot M. Maternal anemia at first antenatal visit: Prevalenc eand risk factors in a malaria-endemic area in Benin. The Am J Tropical Med Hygiene. 2012;87(3):418-24.

Olatunbosun OA, Abasiattai AM, Bassey EA, James RS, Ibanga G, Morgan A. Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women at booking in the University of Uyo teaching hospital, Uyo, Nigeria. BioMed Res Int. 2014;rticle ID 849080.