Prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity in early pregnancy and its association with preeclampsia among primigravidae in Indian population
Keywords:Azithromycin, C.pneumonia, IgG sero-positivity, Prevalence, Pre-eclampsia, Primigravida
Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is a multifactorial disease that might be caused by a concurrent or preceding inflammatory stimulus. Inflammatory changes similar to those reported in chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection are seen in PE. It is suggested that persistent or chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection might have a role in the pathogenesis of PE and antichlamydial treatment in early pregnancy may prevent reactivation of infection and hence the development of preeclampsia.
Methods: This randomized interventional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of C.pneumoniae IgG seropositivity in early pregnancy, its association with PE and the effect of treatment with oral azithromycin. A total of 330 primigravidae included in the study were followed up till delivery. C.pneumoniae IgG antibodies measured by ELISA technique at 14-20 weeks of gestation revealed seropositivity in 32.4%. These women were at higher risk of developing severe PE (odds’ ratio 3.2) as compared to the C. pneumoniae seronegative cases.
Results: Treatment with oral azithromycin resulted in reduction in the occurrence of PE amongst the C.pneumoniae seropositive cases; as well as significant reduction in the incidence of low birth weight babies in the C.pneumonie seropositive group (p<0.001, ARR= 0.204).
Conclusions: Pregnant women who were C.pneumonia IgG seropositive are at higher risk of developing severe preeclmapsia as compared to the C.pneumoniae seronegative cases. This association needs to be further evaluated.
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