First trimester serum vitamin D, hs-CRP and second trimester uterine artery diastolic notching in predicting gestational hypertension and preeclampsia

Renu Arora, Sueba Salmani, Rekha Bharti, B. C. Kabi, Anjali Dabral


Background: Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to study prediction of gestational hypertension/preeclampsia by using first trimester serum vitamin D and hs-CRP and second trimester uterine artery diastolic notching.

Methods: It was an observational study conducted in the departments of obstetrics and gynaecology, clinical biochemistry and radiology, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India. All pregnant women with 11 to 14 weeks gestational age attending antenatal clinic between October 2012 and June 2013 were enrolled in the study. A detailed history including history of the duration of sun exposure was taken and a general physical examination including obstetrical examination was done at every visit. Serum sample were taken for hs-CRP and vitamin-D levels at 11-14 weeks. Uterine artery colour doppler study was done between 22-24 weeks for uterine artery diastolic notching. The main outcome measures were development of gestational hypertension/ preeclampsia/ eclampsia.

Results: The mean vitamin D levels were significantly lower and mean hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group as compared to the normotensive group, p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively. Significant number women who developed hypertension had unilateral (46.2%) or bilateral (20.4%) uterine artery diastolic notching, p=0.005 and p=0.000, respectively. Crude’s odds ratio of uterine artery diastolic notching for prediction of hypertension in pregnancy was high, 9.894, 95% CI, 3.273-29.907 as compared to vitamin D (<13.5 ng/ml) and hs-CRP (>9.15 mg/L), 2.859, 95% CI, 1.418-5.763 and 7.16, 95% CI, 3.33-15.397.

Conclusions: Uterine artery diastolic notching in the early second trimester is found to be the best predictor of PE followed by first trimester hs-CRP and vitamin D.


Gestational hypertension, hs-C reactive protein, Preeclampsia, Prediction, Uterine artery doppler, Vitamin D

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