HIV in pregnancy: a 9 year study of the seroprevalence, sociodemographic factors and pregnancy outcomes of seropositive women at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Keywords:Antenatal women, Human immunodeficiency virus, HAART, PPTCT, Seroprevalence
Background: HIV can cause considerable morbidity and mortality in those affected. An effective PPTCT programme helps in reducing the spread of HIV by vertical transmission and improving the life of the women and her baby.
Methods: A retrospective study was done at a tertiary care hospital, including pregnant women registered and delivered at the hospital during a period of 9 years from January 2010 to December 2018. Pretest counseling, HIV testing, Post-test counseling were done and antiretroviral prophylaxis given as per the NACP guidelines. Sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric and maternal-foetal outcome of seropositive women and efficacy of PPTCT services were analyzed.
Results: Out of the 58,205 antenatal mothers included, 55,256 (94.93%) accepted HIV testing. 171 of these tested positive (0.31%). 70 spouses of the 171 seropositive women tested positive, 53 tested negative and 48 did not undergo the HIV test. Majority of seropositive women were primigravidas; housewives from urban areas, from low income and educational background and with no history of any contraceptive use. 7.6% had an MTP, 1.75% a spontaneous abortion and 0.58% an ectopic pregnancy. Of the 154 births, 35.71% underwent caesarean sections. There were 96.7% live births in our study and the perinatal mortality rate was 5.19%. After 2013, all mother-baby pairs were given ARV prophylaxis.
Conclusions: Utilization of PPTCT services has increased through the years, decreasing the vertical transmission and seroprevalence rate. Increasing the acceptance rates of HIV testing, both by patients and partners may further help in curbing the spread of this condition.
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