DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20160572

The effect of hepatitis C virus treatment on ovarian reserve

Mahmoud F. Midan, Samia M. Eid, Mahmoud A. El-Latif

Abstract


Background: The hepatitis C treatment effect on ovarian reserve of the treated women and so on their reproductive potential attracting the attention and becoming an issue of concern. In this study, we examine the possible action of interferon and ribavirin regimen on the ovarian reserve through assessing the change of AMH level pre-and post-treatment.

Methods: This study is a prospective longitudinal one, includes fifty women in childbearing period with chronic HCV infection fulfilling the criteria of attending the Egyptian national program for HCV treatment and has been referred for antiviral therapy with PEG IFN-α2a or PEG IFN-α2b, plus oral ribavirin for a total of 48 weeks. All patients were tested to AMH level at the beginning of the treatment program (the mean AMH level was 1ngml-3ngml) and retested at the end of treatment program. In addition, they examined by vaginal ultrasound to measure ovarian volume.

Results: At the end of the treatment program 28% of the studied cases remain within pre treatment level of AMH & in 32% of the studied cases the level of AMH decreased where's in 40% of the studied cases the level of AMH increased.

Conclusions: It is likely that interferon and ribavirin affect ovarian reserve of treated patients as a change occurs in the level of AMH in 72% of them.

Keywords


PEG IFN, Ribavirin, Ovarian reserve, AMH

Full Text:

PDF

References


El-Zanaty F, Way A. Egypt demographic and health survey. Cairo, Egypt: Ministry of Health, El-Zanaty and Associates, and Macro International. 2008. Available at: http://www.measuredhs.com/ pubs/pdf/ FR220/FR220.pdf

World Health Organization. Egypt steps up efforts against hepatitis C: World Hepatitis Day. 2014. Available at: http://www.who.int/features/ 2014/ egypt-campaign-hepatitisc/ en/ index.html.

Scheffer G, Broekmans F. Antral follicle counts by transvaginal ultrasonography is related to age in women with proven natural fertility. Fertil Steril. 1999;72(5):845-51.

William L. Clinical utility of measurement of anti-mullerian hormone in reproductive endocrinology. J Clin Endocr Metab. 2010;95(12):5144-54.

Kelsey TW, Dodwell SK, Wilkinson AG, Greve T, Andersen CY, Anderson RA, et al. Ovarian Volume throughout Life: A Validated Normative Model. PloS One. 2013;8(9):e71465.

Sherbahn, Catenacci, Asemota. Advanced Fertility Center of Chicago; Anti-Mullerian Hormone Testing of Ovarian Reserve. 2011. Available at: http://www.advancedfertility.com/amh-fertility-test.htm

Ratne B. The correlation coefficient: Its values range between +1/−1, or do they? Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing. 2009;17:139-42.

Sifer C, Benifla JL, Branger M, Devaux A, Brun-Vezinet F, Madelenat P. Effects of hepatitis C virus on the apoptosis percentage of granulomas cells in vivo in women undergoing IVF: preliminary results. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:1773-76.

Devaux A, Soula V, Sifer C, Branger M, Naouti M, Porcher R. In P Brun, Vezinet F, Feldmann G. Hepatitis C virus detection follicular fluid and culture media from HCV + women, and viral risk during IVF procedures. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:2342-9.

Faddy MJ, Gosden RG, Gougeon A, Richardson SJ, Nelson JF. Accelerated disappearance of ovarian follicles. Hum Reprod. 1992;10:1342-6.

Rosen MP, Johnstone EB, Gillham SJ, Modan AE, Lipshutz AK, Reijo-Pera R. Is antral follicle count a genetic trait? Menopause. 2010;17:109-13.

Pradat P, Alberti A, Poynard T, Esteban JI, Weiland O, Marcellin P. Predictive Value of ALT Levels for Histologic Findings in Chronic Hepatitis C: A European Collaborative Study. Hepatology. 2002;36:973-7.

Fujisawa M, Fujioka H, Tatsumi N, Inaba Y, Okada H, Arakawa S. Levels of interferon alpha and gamma inseminal plasma of normozoospermic, oligozoospermic, a azoospermic men. Archives of Andrology. 1998;40:211-4.

Abdel-Rahman M, El-Sayed M, El Raziky M, Elsharkawy A, El-Akel W, Ghoneim H, et al. Co- infection with hepatitis C virus and schistosomiasis: Fibrosis and treatment response. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(17):2691-6.

Perrillo RP. The role of liver biopsy in hepatitis C. Hepatology. 1997;3(1):57S-61S.

World Health Organization. Global Alert and Response: Hepatitis C prevention and treatment. 2002. Available at: http://www.who.int/ csr/disease/ hepatitis/ whocdscsrlyo2003/en/ index5.html

Kwee J, Elting ME, Schats R, McDonnell J, Lambalk CB. Ovarian volume and antral follicle count for the prediction of low and hyper responders with in vitro fertilization. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2007;5(9).

Hendriks DJ, Kwee J, Mol BW, Te Velde ER, Broekmans FJ. Ultrasonography as a tool for the prediction of outcome in IVF patients: A comparative meta-analysis of ovarian volume and antral follicle count. Fertil Sterile. 2007;87:764-75.

Higgins RV, van Nagell JR, Woods CH, Thompson EA, Kryscio RJ. Interobserver variation in ovarian measurements using trans vaginal sonography. Gynecol Oncol. 1990;39:69-71.

Bowen S, Norian J, Santoro N, Pal L. Simple tools for assessment of ovarian reserve (OR): individual ovarian dimensions are reliable predictors of OR. Fertil Sterile. 2007;88(2):390-5.

Lee SJ, Schover LR, Partridge AH, Patrizio P, Wallace WH, Hagerty K. American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations on fertility preservation in cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:2917-31.

Bo Yu, Douglas N, Ferin MJ, Gary S. Changes in markers of ovarian reserve and endocrine function in young women with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy Cancer. 2010;116(9):2099-2105.

Howell S, Shalet S. Gonadal damage from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. 1998;27:927-43.

Meirow D, Nugent D. The effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on female reproduction. Hum Reprod Update. 2001;7:535-43.

Wallace WH, Thomson AB, Kelsey TW. The radiosensitivity of the human oocyte. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:117-21.

Royal College of Physicians, The Royal College of Radiologists, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. The effects of cancer treatment on reproductive functions: Guidance on management. Report of a Working Party. London: RCP. 2007. Available at: https://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/ sites/ default/files/ documents/ effects-of-cancer-treatment-reproductive-functions.pdf

Sonmezer M, Oktay K. Fertility preservation in female patients Hum Reprod Update. 2004;10(3):251-66.

Bath LE, Wallace WH, Shaw MP, Fitzpatrick C, Anderson RA. Depletion of ovarian reserve in young women after treatment for cancer in childhood: detection by anti-Mullerian hormone, inhibin B and ovarian ultrasound. Hum Reprod. 2003;18(11):2368-74.

Larsen EC, Muller J, Schmiegelow K, Rechnitzer C, Andersen AN. Reduced ovarian function in long-term survivors of radiation- and chemotherapy-treated childhood cancer. Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2003;88(11):5307-14.

Oktay K, Oktem O, Reh A, Vahdat L. Measuring the impact of chemotherapy on fertility in women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(24):4044-6.

Morgan S, Anderson RA, Gourley C, Wallace WH, Spears N. How do chemotherapeutic agents damage the ovary? Hum Reprod Update. 2012;18(5):525-35.

Meirow D, Biedermann H, Anderson RA, Wallace WH. Toxicity of chemotherapy and radiation on female reproduction. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2010;53:727-39.

Oktem O, Oktay K. Quantitative assessment of the impact of chemotherapy on ovarian follicle reserve and stromal function. Cancer. 2007;110:2222-9.

Yucebilgin MS, Terek MC, Ozsaran A, Akercan F, Zekioglu O, Isik E, et al. Effect of chemotherapy on primordial follicular reserve of rat: An animal model of premature ovarian failure and infertility. Aust Nz J Obstet Gyn. 2004;44:6-9.

Raz A, Fisch B, Okon E, Feldberg D, Nitke S, Raanani H, et al. Possible direct cytotoxicity effects of cyclophosphamide on cultured human follicles: an electron microscopy study J Assist Reprod Gen. 2002;19:500-6.

Abir R, Ben-Haroush A, Felz C, Okon E, Raanani H, Orvieto R, et al. Selection of patients before and after anticancer treatment for ovarian cryopreservation. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:869-77.

Anderson RA, Themmen APN, Al-Qahtani A, Groome NP, Cameron DA. The effects of chemotherapy and long-term gonadotrophin suppression on the ovarian reserve in premenopausal women with breast cancer. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:2583-92.

Decanter C, Morschhauser F, Pigny P, Lefebvre C, Gallo C, Dewailly D. Anti-Müllerian hormone follow-up in young women treated by chemotherapy for lymphoma: preliminary results. Reprod Biomed Online. 2010;20:280-5.

Rosendahl M, Andersen CY, La Cour FN, Juul A, Lossl K, Andersen AN. Dynamics and mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced ovarian follicular depletion in women of fertile age. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:156-66.

Drug Bank. Version 4.2. created on June 13, 2005 / Updated on October 08, 2013. Available at: http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00811

Sharp M. Dohme Corporation. Rebetol (ribavirin) capsules and oral solution prescribing information. 2013 November Available at: https://www.merck.com/product/ usa/pi_circulars/ r/rebetol/ rebetol_pi.pdf

Lass A, Silye R, Abrams DC, Krausz T, Hovatta O, Margara R. Follicular density in ovarian biopsy of infertile women: A novel method to assess ovarian reserve. Hum Reprod. 1997;12:1028-31.

Seifer D, Mac Laughlin T, Penzias S, Behrman R, Asmundson L, Donahoe K, et al. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-induced differences in granulosa cell cycle kinetics are associated with alterations in follicular fluid müllerian-inhibiting substance and androgen content. JCEM. 1993;76:711-4.

Cook CL, Siow Y, Taylor S, Fallat M. Serum Müllerian inhibiting substance levels during normal menstrual cycles. Fertil Steril. 2000;73:859-61.

Drugs com. FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses Ribavirin. Revised: 08/2014 Available at: http://www.drugs.com/ pro/ ribavirin.html

Manns MP, McHutchison JG, Gordon SC. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C:a randomized trial. Lancet. 2001;358:958-65.

Mishkin D, Deschênes M. Conception soon after discontinuing interferon/ribavirin therapy: a successful outcome. Am J Gastroentero. 2001;96(7):2285-86.

World of Microbiology and Immunology; 2003. Encyclopedia.com. 2015. Available at: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3409800319.html

Jonasch E, Haluska FG. Interferon in oncological practice: review of interferon biology, clinical applications, and toxicities. Oncologist. 2001;6(1):34-55.

Yamamoto M, Miyake K. Successful use of interferon for male infertility. Lancet. 1994;344(8922):614.

Erpenbach KH. Systemic treatment with interferon-alpha 2B: an effective method to prevent sterility after bilateral mumps orchitis. Urology. 1991;146:54-6.

Erickson G. Follicle Growth and Development. Global library of women's medicine. 2008;ISSN:1756-2228. Available at: http://www.glowm.com/section_view/heading/Follicle%20Growth%20and%20Development/item/288.

Skinner MK. Regulation of primordial follicle assembly and development. Hum Reprod Update. 2005;11:461-71.

Hutt KJ, Mc Laughlin EA, Holland MK. KIT/KIT ligand in mammalian oogenesis and folliculogenesis: roles in rabbit and murine ovarian follicle activation and oocyte growth. Biol Reprod. 2006;75:421-33.

Ernstoff MS, Fusi S, Kirkwood JM. Parameters of interferon action: I. Immunological effects of whole cell leukocyte interferon (IFN-alpha) in phase I-II trials. J Biol Resp Modif. 1983;2:528-39.

Gisslinger H, Svoboda T, Clodi M, Gilly B, Ludwig H, Havelec L. Interferon-alpha stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in vivo and in vitro. Neuroendocrinology. 1993;57:489-95.

Society for Endocrinology. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone. J Endocrinol. 2012;175(1):89-97.

Gleicher N, Weghofer A, Barad DH. Improvement in diminished ovarian reserve after dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation. Reprod Biomed Online. 2010;21(3):360-5. Available at: http://www.fertilitynutraceuticals.com/article/improvement-in-diminished-ovarian-reserve.