DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20196028

Effectiveness of kinesiotaping and Acu-TENS on maternal and neonatal outcomes in the first stage of labor among primigravidas

Roshini Rajappan, Shivaranjani Balamurugan, Karthikeyan Selvaganapathy

Abstract


Background: The common reason for rise in elective Caesarean Section (CS) rate among primigravidas is maternal request due to labor pain fear. Many non-pharmacological pain relief strategies are available to help women cope with labor pain, providing a positive and satisfactory birth experience. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of KT and Acu-TENS on maternal and neonatal outcomes in primigravidas.

Methods: 40 full-term primigravidas with an age range of 20-40 years were enrolled into the study by convenience sampling method and divided into 2 groups. Group A received KT and Group B received Acu-TENS. Both groups received breathing exercises. Pain assessment at various cervical dilatation levels were carried out for all participants before and after treatment using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Duration of active phase in first stage labor, mode of delivery and neonatal well-being were measured following delivery.

Results: Group A experienced VAS score reduction significantly more than Group B, p=0.004; <0.05. There was no significant change in active phase duration of first stage labor between Group A and Group B, p=0.319; >0.05. CS rate was increased in Group A [35% (7/20)] than in Group B [25% (5/20)], but neonatal outcomes were not different.

Conclusions: This study proves that KT produced significantly better pain relief than Acu-TENS in first stage labor among primigravidas. Acu-TENS showed reduction in active phase duration of first stage labor than KT. Both interventions can safely be used non-invasively for labor pain relief.


Keywords


Acu-TENS, Caesarean, Kinesiotaping, Labor pain, Primigravid, Visual analogue scale

Full Text:

PDF

References


Sapsford R, Bullock-Saxton J, Markwell S. Women’s health: A text-book for physiotherapists. 1st ed. London: WB Saunders Company Ltd; 1998:192-203.

Betrán AP, Ye J, Moller AB, Zhang J, Gülmezoglu AM, Torloni MR. The increasing trend in caesarean section rates: global, regional and national estimates: 1990-2014. PloS One. 2016;11(2):e0148343.

NFHS - 4, 2015-16. India fact sheet. Available at: http://www.rchiips.org/nfhs. Accessed on 15th March 2019.

NFHS - 4, 2015-16. State fact sheet – Tamil Nadu. Available at: http://www.rchiips.org/nfhs. Accessed on 15th March 2019.

Vijayalaxmi KG, Urooj A. Influence of maternal factors on mode of delivery and birth weight in urban pregnant women. J Hum Ecol. 2009;25(2):133-6.

WHO statement on CS rates. 2015. Available at: http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/. Accessed on 9th January 2019.

Abushama M, Ahmed B. CS on request. Saudi Med J. 2004;25(12):1820-3.

Pang MW, Leug TN, Leug TY, Lai CY, Lau TK, Chung KH. Determinants of preference for elective CS in Hong Kong Chinese pregnant women. Hong Kong Med J. 2007;13(2):100-5.

Adams ED, Bianchi AL. A practical approach to labor support. JOGNN. 2008;37:106-15.

Mukherjee SN. Rising cesarean section rate. The J Obstet Gynecol India. 2006;56(4):298-300.

Mantle J, Haslam J, Barton S, Cardozo L. Physiotherapy in obstetrics and gynaecology. 2nd Ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier limited; 2004.

Brown ST, Douglas C, Flood LP. Women's evaluation of intra partum non pharmacological pain relief methods used during labor. J Perinat Educ. 2001;10:1-8.

Trout KK. The neuromatrix theory of pain: Implications for selected non-pharmacologic methods of pain relief for labor. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2004;49(6):482-8.

Miquelutti MA, Cecatti JG. KT for pain control during labor: Protocol of a RCT. Nurs Health Sci. 2017;19(1):95-9.

El-Refaye G, El Nahas E, Ghareeb H. Effect of KT therapy combined with breathing exercises on childbirth duration and labor pain: a RCT. Bullet

Faculty Phy Ther. 2016;21(1):23-31.

Chao AS, Chao A, Wang TH, Chang YC, Peng HH, Chang SD. Pain relief by applying TENS on acupuncture points during the first stage of labor: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Pain. 2007;127(3):214-20.

Kaplan B, Rabinerson D, Lurie S, Bar J, Krieser UR, Neri A. TENS for adjuvant pain-relief during labor and delivery. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1998;60(3):251-5.

Kamali Fard M, Shahnazi M, Allahverdizadeh S, Toraby S, Ghahvechi A. The efficacy of massage therapy and breathing techniques on pain intensity and physiological responses to labor pain. J Caring Sci. 2012:173-78.

Yildirim G, Sahin NH. The effect of breathing and skin stimulation techniques on labor pain perception of Turkish women. Pain Res Manag. 2004;9(4):183-7.

Kaplan S, Alpayci M, Karaman E. Short-term effects of KT in women with pregnancy related low back pain: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Med Sci Monit. 2016;22:1297-301.

Peng T, Li XT, Zhou SF. TENS on acupoints relieves labor pain: A non-randomized controlled study. Chin J Integ Med. 2010;16(3):234-8.

Bedwell C, Dowswell, Neilson JP, Lavender T. The use of TENS for pain relief in labor: A review of the evidence. Midwifery. 2011;27(5):141-8.

Lee MK, Chang SB, Kang DH. Effects of Sp6 acupressure on labor pain and length of delivery time in women during labor. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10(6):959-65.

Bijur PE, Silver W, Gallagher EJ. Reliability of VAS for measurement of acute pain. Acad Emerg Med. 2001;8:1153-7.

Ratcliffe FM, Evans JM. Neonatal wellbeing after elective caesarean delivery with general, spinal and epidural anaesthesia. Eu J Anaesthesiol. 1993;10(3):175-81.

Van der Spank JT, Cambier DC, De Paepe HM, Danneels LA, Witvrouw EE, Beerens L. Pain relief in labor by TENS. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2000;264(3):131-6.

Vakilian K, Keramat A. The effects of breathing techniques with and without aromatherapy on the length of active phase and second stage of labor. Nursing Midwifery Stud. 2013;1:115-9.

Levett KM, Smith CA, Bensoussan A, Dahlen HG. Complementary therapies for labour and birth study: a randomised controlled trial of antenatal integrative medicine for pain management in labour. BMJ open. 2016;6(7):e010691.

Ratna T, Rekha P. Comparative study of TENS and tramadol hydrochloride for pain relief in labor. J Obstet Gynecol Ind. 2004;54(4):346-50.

Bundsen P, Ericson K, Peterson LE, Thiringer K. Pain relief in labor by TENS. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1982;61:129-36.

Kubista E, Kucera H, Riss P. The effect of TENS on labor pain. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1978;38:1079-84.

Harrison RF, Woods T, Shore M, Mathews G, Unwin A. Pain relief in labor using TENS. A TENS/TENS placebo-controlled study in two parity groups. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1986;93(7):739-46.

Kamali Fard M, Shahnazi M, Torabi S, Gahvechy Jaeepeyma A, Azari S. The efficacy of breathing techniques in physiological response to labor pain and pain intensity. J Caring Sci Nurs Midwif. 2009;3(12):33-8.

Tafazoli M, Yosef Zadeh S, Behnam Veshani H, Keivanlo F, Keivanlo M, Delbari F. The effect of training respiratory techniques on labor. Beihagh. 2000;6(1):24-31.

Smith, Elizabeth W. The relationship between one- and five-minute APGAR scores and linguistic functioning as measured by the test of language development. Retro Theses Dissertat. 1982:657.

Papile LA. The Apgar score in the 21st century. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:519-20.

Mello LFD, Nóbrega LF, Lemos A. TENS for pain relief during labor: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia. 2011;15(3):175-84.

Van der Ploeg JM, Vervest HA, Liem AL, Schagen van Leeuwen JH. TENS during the first stage of labor: A RCT. Pain. 1996;68(1):75-8.