DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20195997

The knowledge, attitude, and action of Northern Iranian women about cervical cancer and screening

Ali Ahmadzadeh Amiri, Mohammad Reza Haghshenas, Amir Ahmadzadeh Amiri, Fatemeh Daneshvar

Abstract


Background: Cervical cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world among women which its early diagnosis plays an important role in the prognosis. There are many factors that contribute to the participation in the screening programs, most notably the level of knowledge and attitude of people towards cancer. Understanding the level of these factors in the female population and its association with participation in screening programs is important. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of women in the north of Iran to compare these factors between two groups with different baseline knowledge.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among female medical clients and healthcare staff in a healthcare center in the north of Iran. All the eligible patients were interviewed and were asked to fill a questionnaire containing the demographic data, knowledge, attitude, and action about cervical cancer and screening. The data were analyzed by SPSS v24.

Results: A total of 283 females entered our study of which 156(55.1%) were clients of the healthcare center and 127(44.9%) were non-physician healthcare staff. Ninety (60.8%) of clients and 39(56.5%) of the staff have performed pap smear at least once (p=0.556). The levels of knowledge and attitude were significantly lower in the clients (p < 0.001 and p=0.003, respectively). There were no significant differences regarding the level of knowledge and attitude between those who performed pap smear and those who did not (0.621 and 0.788, respectively).

Conclusions: Increasing awareness, especially improving attitudes in the female population, should be the focus of the health care system to encourage more women to participate in screening programs.


Keywords


Attitude, Community participation, Diagnostic screening programs, Knowledge, Uterine cervical neoplasms

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organization (WHO). Attaining the nine global non-communicable diseases targets; a shared responsibility. Global Status Report on non-communicable diseases, 2014. Available at: https://www.who.int/nmh/publications/ncd-status-report-2014/en/.

Ginsburg O, Bray F, Coleman MP, Vanderpuye V, Eniu A, Kotha SR, et al. The global burden of women's cancers: a grand challenge in global health. Lancet. 2017;389(10071):847-60.

Moshkovich O, Lebrun-Harris L, Makaroff L, Chidambaran P, Chung M, Sripipatana A, et al. Challenges and opportunities to improve cervical cancer screening rates in us health centers through patient-centered medical home transformation. Adv Prev Med. 2015;2015:182073.

Benard VB, Thomas CC, King J, Massetti GM, Doria-Rose VP, Saraiya M, et al. Vital signs: cervical cancer incidence, mortality, and screening - United States, 2007-2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(44):1004-9.

Gustafsson L, Ponten J, Bergstrom R, Adami HO. International incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer before cytological screening. Int J Cancer. 1997;71(2):159-65.

Catarino R, Petignat P, Dongui G, Vassilakos P. Cervical cancer screening in developing countries at a crossroad: Emerging technologies and policy choices. World J Clin Oncol. 2015;6(6):281-90.

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: Sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer. 2015;136:E359-E386.

World Health Organization (WHO). Comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control: a healthier future for girls and women, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013. Available at: https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/cancers/9789241505147/en/.

Braaten KP, Laufer MR. Human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV-related disease, and the HPV vaccine. Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2008;1(1):2-10.

Bloem P, Ogbuanu I. Vaccination to prevent human papillomavirus infections: From promise to practice. PLoS Med. 2017;14(6):e1002325.

Al-Mandeel HM, Sagr E, Sait K, Latifah HM, Al-Obaid A, Al-Badawi IA, et al. Clinical practice guidelines on the screening and treatment of precancerous lesions for cervical cancer prevention in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. 2016;36(5):313-20.

Lie AK, Kristensen G. Human papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNA testing as a predictive marker for cervical carcinoma. Expert Review Mol Diag. 2008;8(4):405-15.

World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO reproductive health library. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia; 2004. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/206006.

Ndejjo R, Mukama T, Kiguli J, Musoke D. Knowledge, facilitators and barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in Uganda: a qualitative study. BMJ Open. 2017;7(6):e016282.

Khanna D, Khargekar N, Budukh A. Knowledge, attitude, and practice about cervical cancer and its screening among community healthcare workers of Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh, India. J Family Med Prim Care. 2019;8(5):1715-9.

Reiners F, Sturm J, Bouw LJW, Wouters EJM. Sociodemographic factors influencing the use of ehealth in people with chronic diseases. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(4):645.

Choi B, Um TR, Lee KS. Factors related to cancer screening behaviors. Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018011.

Allahverdipour H, Emami A. Perceptions of cervical cancer threat, benefits, and barriers of papanicolaou smear screening programs for women in Iran. Women Health. 2008;47(3):23-37.

Farjadian S, Asadi E, Doroudchi M, Dehaghani AS, Tabei S, Kumar V, et al. High-risk HPV types in southern Iranian patients with cervical cancer. Pathol Oncol Res. 2003;9(2):121-5.

Ghaffari SR, Sabokbar T, Mollahajian H, Dastan J, Ramezanzadeh F, Ensani F, et al. Prevalence of human papillomavirus genotypes in women with normal and abnormal cervical cytology in Iran. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prevent. 2006;7(4):529-32.

Khorasanizadeh F, Hassanloo J, Khaksar N, Taheri SM, Marzaban M, Rashidi BH, et al. Epidemiology of cervical cancer and human papilloma virus infection among Iranian women: Analyses of national data and systematic review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol. 2013;128(2):277-81.

Asgarlou Z, Tehrani S, Asghari E, Arzanlou M, Naghavi-Behzad M, Piri R, et al. Cervical cancer prevention knowledge and attitudes among female university students and hospital staff in Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(11):4921-7.

Ramezani Tehrani F, Mohammad K, Rahgozar M, Naghavi M. Kenowlege and practice of Iranian women toward cervical cancer. J Reprod Infertil. 2001;2(1):50-6.

Anantharaman VV, Sudharshini S, Chitra A. A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude, and practice on cervical cancer and screening among female health care providers of Chennai corporation, 2013. J Acad Med Sci. 2012;2:124-8.

Rezaie-Chamani S, Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi S, Kamalifard M. Knowledge, attitudes and practice about pap smear among women reffering to a public hospital. J Fam Reprod Health. 2012;6(4):177-82.

Asgarlou Z, Tehrani S, Asghari E, Arzanlou M, Naghavi-Behzad M, Piri R, et al. Cervical Cancer Prevention Knowledge and Attitudes among Female University Students and Hospital Staff in Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(11):4921-7.

Ogbonna FS. Knowledge, attitude, and experience of cervical cancer and screening among Sub-saharan African female students in a UK University. Ann African Med. 2017;16(1):18-23.

Hoque M, Hoque E, Kader SB. Evaluation of cervical cancer screening program at a rural community of South Africa. East African J Pub Health. 2008;5(2):111-6.

Bahri N, Jajvandian R, Bolandhemmat M, Mirzaiinajmabadi K. Knowledge, attitudes and practice about pap smear test among women living in Bojnourd, North East of Iran: a population-based study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(5):2013-8.

Soltanahmadi Z, Abbaszadeh A, Tirgari B. A survey on the rate and causes of women’s participation or nonparticipation in breast and cervical cancers screening programs. The Iranian J Obstet Gynecol Infert. 2010;13:37-46.

Jalalvandi M, Khodadoostan M. Married women and Pap smear, what they know? what they know? how they do?. Iran J Nurs. 2005;18:139-44.

Baghyani M. Survey on knowledge, attitude and practice of 15-49 years age group married women related to pap smear test in Yazd city in 2001. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 2003;13:79-85.

Hadji M, Khosravi M, Weiderpass E, Taghizadeh R, Zendehdel K. Factors related to the knowledge, attitudes and practices of opportunistic cervical cancer screening in I.R of Iran. Basic Clin Cancer Res. 2015;7(2-3):9-19.

Islam N, Kwon SC, Senie R, Kathuria N. Breast and cervical cancer screening among south Asian women in New York city. J Immig Minor Health. 2006;8:211-21.

Ezem BU. Awareness and uptake of cervical cancer screening in Owerri, South-Eastern Nigeria. Ann African Med. 2007;6(3):94-8.

Amarian ZO, Badria LF, Obeidat BR. Attitudes and beliefs about cervical smear testing in ever-married Jordanian women. Eastern Mediterranean Health J. 2008;14:389-97.

Anorlu RI. Cervical cancer: the sub-Saharan African perspective. Repro Health Matters. 2008;16(32):41-9.

Nwankwo KC, Aniebue UU, Aguwa EN, Anarado AN, Agunwah E. Knowledge attitudes and practices of cervical cancer screening among urban and rural Nigerian women: a call for education and mass screening. European J Cancer Care. 2011;20(3):362-7.

Tran JH, Mouttapa M, Ichinose TY, Pang JK, Ueda D, Tanjasiri SP. Sources of information that promote breast and cervical cancer knowledge and screening among native Hawaiians in Southern California. J Cancer Educ. 2010;25(4):588-94.

Thorburn S, Keon KL, Kue J. Sources of breast and cervical cancer information for Hmong women and men. Women Health. 2013;53(5):468-78.