Antenatal service utilization among women in South India: a community based cross sectional study

Chethana K., Manjula Anil, Maria Nelliyanil


Background: Antenatal period is important for identifying pregnancy related threats and antenatal care (ANC) is one of the most effective health interventions during this period. It provides a unique opportunity for screening and diagnosis, health promotion and disease prevention. This study assessed the antenatal service utilization pattern and its determinants among women.

Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in the field practice area of a teaching hospital in Mangalore. Study included 142 women who had delivered in the last one year in the study area, selected using snowball sampling method. A pretested semi-structured validated questionnaire was used to collect the data. Predictors of full ANC were identified using univariate analysis and explanatory variables were entered into multivariate regression model to obtain the adjusted odds ratios to find the association between full ANC coverage and its determinants.

Results: Among the participants, 99.3% registered their pregnancy and 78.9% had early registration. Majority, 91.5% had minimum antenatal visits, 83.1% consumed iron and folic acid supplements for more than three months and tetanus toxoid (TT) coverage was 98.6%. Full ANC coverage was found to be 81% and unadjusted analysis showed higher odds of full ANC coverage among housewives, primiparous, women in joint family and among literates. However, multi variable analysis revealed literacy as the major determinant of full ANC.

Conclusions: In the present study, majority of the women had adequate antenatal care utilization. Full antenatal coverage was found to be statistically significant among literate women.


Antenatal care, Pregnancy, Utilization

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