Surveillance of congenital malformations and their possible risk factors in a teaching hospital in Punjab


  • Sheeba Marwah Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gian Sagar Medical College and Hospital, Banur, Patiala, Punjab, India
  • Sushmita Sharma Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gian Sagar Medical College and Hospital, Banur, Patiala, Punjab, India
  • Harpreet Kaur Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gian Sagar Medical College and Hospital, Banur, Patiala, Punjab, India
  • Monika Gupta Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gian Sagar Medical College and Hospital, Banur, Patiala, Punjab, India
  • SPS Goraya Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gian Sagar Medical College and Hospital, Banur, Patiala, Punjab, India


CMF, Incidence, Risk factors


Background: Congenital malformations (CMF) are third most common cause of perinatal mortality in India making their prediction and prevention highly eminent. The present study was designed to analyze the frequency, distribution and patterns of CMF among babies born in a teaching hospital in Punjab, along-with factors contributing towards their occurrence.

Methods: This was a prospective study in which the incidence of CMF was determined in 1554 consecutive deliveries conducted at Gian Sagar Medical College, Banur, from July 2010 - June 2011. Diagnosis of CMF was based on prenatal ultrasound or clinical evaluation of the newborn by the neonatologist. Various risk factors associated with occurrence of CMF were studied.

Results: The incidence of CMF was 4.44% (n=69). Out of the babies born with CMF, 49 (71.01%) were still born, and major defects were present in 68.11%. CNS and urogenital system were most commonly involved, while 8.6% babies had multiple anomalies. High age and parity, parental consanguinity, bad obstetrical history, inadvertent drug ingestion enhanced risk; with no effect of radiation exposure and antenatal infections.

Conclusions: Incidence of CMF in our population was 4.44%: frequently associated with increasing age, parity, consanguineous marriage, maternal disease and drug ingestion.


Singh M. Hospital based data on perinatal and neonatal mortality in India. Indian Pediatr. 1986;23:579-84.

Mohanty C, Mishra OP, Das BK, Bhatia BD, Singh G. Congenital malformations in newborns : a study of 10,874 consecutive births. J Anat Soc India. 1989;38:101-11.

Mishra PC, Baveja R. Congenital malformations in the newborn: a perspective study. Indian Pediatr. 1989;26:32-5.

A National Collaborative Study of identification of high risk families, mothers and outcome of their offspring with particular reference to the problem of maternal nutrition, low birth weight, perinatal and infant morbidity and mortality in rural and urban Slum communities Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi. 1990: 119-126. Available at:‎.

Stevenson A. C., Johnston H. A., Stewart M. P., Golding D. R. Congenital malformations: a report of a study of series of consecutive births in 24 centers. Bulletin of WHO. 1966;34(suppl):9-127.

Chaturvedi P, Benerjee KS. Spectrum of congenital malformations in the newborn from rural Maharashtra. Indian J Pediatr. 1989;56:501-7.

Agarwal SS, Singh U, Singh PS et al. Prevalence and spectrum of congenital malformations in a prospective study at a teaching hospital. Indian J Med Res. 1991;94:413-9.

Sugunbai NS, Mary M, Shymalan K, Nair PM. An etiological study of congenital malformations in newborns. Indian Pediatr. 1982;19:1003-9.

Chinara PK, Singh S. East West difference in congenital malformations in India. Indian J Pediatr. 1982;49:325-9.

Verma M, Chaatwal J, Singh D. Congenital malformation - A retrospective study of 10,000 cases. Indian J Pediatr. 1991;58:259-63.

Khanna KK, Prasad LSN. Congenital malformations in the newborn. Indian J Pediatr. 1967;34:63-6.

S Karbasi, M Golestan, R Fallah, F Mirnaseri, K Barkhordari, MS Bafghee. Prevalence of Congenital Malformations. Acta Medica Iranica. 2009;47(2):149-153.

Farhud DD, Walizadeh GhR, Kamali MS. Congenital malformations and genetic diseases in Iranian infants. Human Genetics. 1986;74:382-5.

Tootoonchi P. Easily identification congenital anomalies. Prevalence and risk factors. Acta Medica Iranica. 2003;41(1):15-9.

Shamohamdi F, Ahadi MA. The survey of congenital malformations in live births in Taleghani hospital, Arak. Iran. Journal of Arak University of Medical Sciences. 1997;1(4):23-9.

Golalipour MJ, Ahmadpour-Kacho M, Vakili MA. Congenital malformations at a referral hospital in Gorgan, Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 2005 Jul;11(4):707-15.

Sawardekar KP. Prevalence of isolated minor congenital anomalies in a regional hospital in Oman. Saudi Med J. 2005 Oct;26(10):1567-72.

Al Arrayed SS. Epidemiology of congenital abnormalities in Bahrain. Mediterr Health J. 1995;1(2):248-52.

Al Hosani H, Salah M, Abu-Zeid H, Farag HM, Saade D. The National Congenital Anomalies Register in the United Arab Emirates. East Mediterr Health J. 2005 Jul;11(4):690-9.

Bittar Z. Major Congenital Malformation presenting in the first 24 hours of life in 3865 consecutive births in south of Beirut. Incidence and pattern. J Med Libyan 1998 Sep-Oct;46(5):250-60.

Datta V, Chaturvedi P. Congenital malformations in rural Maharashtra. Indian Pediatrics. 2000;37:998-1001.

Neelam Grover. Congenital Malformations in Shimla. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2000;67(4):249-51.

Singh M, Sharma SK. Spectrum of congenital malformations in the newborn. Indian J Pediatrics. 1980;47:239-44.

Verma IC. Neural tube defects in India. In: Verma IC, Purl RK eds. Medical Genetics in India. 1st ed. Pondicherry: Auroma enterprises; 1978: 33-38.

Kulkarni ML, Mathew MA, Ramachandran B. High incidence of neural tube defects in South India. Lancet. 1987;1:1260.

Tibrewala NS, Pai PM. Congenital malformations in the newborns period. Indian J Pediatr. 1974;11:403-7.






Original Research Articles