DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20201025

Analytical study of thyroid and prolactin hormone levels in infertile women with menstrual irregularities

S. R. Keerthanaa, P. B. Hiremath

Abstract


Background: Infertility is the inability of a couple to achieve pregnancy over an average period of one year (in a woman under 35 years of age) or 6 months (in a woman above 35 years of age) despite adequate, regular (3-4 times per week), unprotected sexual intercourse. It is of two types, primary infertility and secondary infertility. It can be due to the woman, the man, or both men and woman. Though there are several factors plays role in the causing infertility, endocrine hormones play a crucial role in it. Among all the hormones, thyroid and prolactin hormone have profound effects on reproduction and pregnancy.

Methods: A prospective analytical study was conducted among 200 female patients, of age group 20-40 years, attending the outpatient department of obstetrics and gynecology. Sent for analysis of thyroid profile and prolactin levels. The data of the patients who have been completely followed up after six months was entered in excel sheet and analyzed using SPSS (version 16).

Results: In this study the mean age of the study participants were 31.33±4.12 years and 4 of them were below 25 years of age. There is high prevalence of hypothyroidism (23.5%) and hyperprolactinemia (31%) was noted among the infertile females.

Conclusions: The assessment of thyroid function and prolactin levels is mandatory in the work up of all infertile women, especially those presenting with menstrual irregularities. Also, early initiation of treatment may help in restoring the fertility among the infertile woman.


Keywords


Hyperprolactinemia, Infertility, Pregnancy, Thyroid disorders

Full Text:

PDF

References


Nambiar V, Jagtap VS, Sarathi V, Lila AR, Kamalanathan S, Bandgar TR, et al. Prevalence and impact of thyroid disorders on maternal outcome in asian-indian pregnant women. J Thyroid Res. 2011; Article ID 429097:1-6.

Mbah AU, Ejim EC, Onodugo OD, Ezugwu FO, Eze MI, Nkwo PO, et al. Two logistic models for the prediction of hypothyroidism in pregnancy. BMC Res Notes. 2011;4(205):1-10.

Glinoer D, De Nayer P, Bourdoux P, Lemone M, Robyn C, Van Steirteghem A, et al. Regulation of maternal thyroid during pregnancy. J Elin Endocrinol Metab. 1990;71:276-87.

Vermiglio F, Lo Presti VP, Scaffidi, Argentina G, Finocchiaro MD, Gullo D, et al. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia during the first half of gestation in an iodine deficient area with endemic cretinism and related disorders. Clin Endocrinol Oxf. 1995;42:409-5.

Krassas GE, Pontikides N, Kaltsas T, Papadopoulou P, Paunkovic J, Paunkovic N, et al. Disturbances of menstruation in hypothyroidism. Clin Endocrinol. 1999;50(5):655-9.

Goswami B, Patel S, Chatterjee M, Koner BC, Saxena A. Correlation of prolactin and thyroid hormone concentration with menstrual patterns in infertile women. J Reprod Infertil. 2009;10(3):207.

Hornstein MD, Davis OK, Massey JB. Antiphospholipid antibodies and in vitro fertilization success: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2000;73:330-3.

Mili B, Lahon D, Thakur BB. A study on serum prolactin level and its relationship with thyroid profile in infertile women. Indian J Basic Appl Med Res. 2017;7(1):5-11.

Hivre MD, Bhale DV, Mahat RK, Bujurge AA. Study of serum TSH and prolactin levels in patients of female infertility. Inter J Recent Trends Sci Technol. 2013;9(1):144-5.

Sharma P, Prasad S, Tangri N. Female infertility and its correlation with serum prolactin and TSH concentration: an unmatched case control study. J Pharm Biomed Sci. 2013;30(30):902-7.

Rahman D, Fatima P, Banu J. Thyroid disorders in female subfertility. JCMCTA. 2008;19(2):46-50.

Sharma UR, Parmar C. Thyroid profile in infertile women and menstrual dysfunction. Indian Med Gazette. 1998:1-7.

Joshi JV, Bhandarkar SD, Chadha M, Balaiah D, Shah R. Menstrual irregularities and lactation failure may precede thyroid dysfunction or goitre. J Postgraduate Med. 1993;39:137-41.

Koutras DA. Disturbances of menstruation in thyroid disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997;816:280-4.

Hendershot GE, Mosher WD, Pratt WF. Infertility and age: an unresolved issue. Fam Plann Perspect. 1982;14:287.

Koutras DA. Disturbances of menstruation in thyroid disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997;816:280-4.

Cramer DW, Sluss PM, Powers RD, McShane P, Ginsburgs ES, Hornstein MD et al. Serum prolactin and TSH in an invitro fertilization population: is there a link between fertilization and thyroid function? J Assist Reprod Genet. 2003;20(6):210-5.

Bohnet HG, Fiedler K, Leidenberger FA. Subclinical hypothyroidism and infertility. Lancet. 1981;2:1278.

Trokoudes KM, Skordis N, Picolos MK. Infertility and thyroid disorders. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2006;18:446-51.

Bispink L, Brandle W, Lindner C, Bettendorf G. Preclinical hypothyroidism and disorders of ovarian function. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1989;49:881-8.

Raber W, Nowotny P, Vytiska-Binstorfer E, Vierhapper H. Thyroxine treatment modified in infertile women according to thyroxine-releasing hormone testing: 5-year follow-up of 283 women referred after exclusion of absolute causes of infertility. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:707-14.