Clinical and pathological correlation in benign breast diseases in women


  • Bhavuk Kapoor Department of Neurosurgery, GMC Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • Parul Vaid Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SMGS Hospital GMC Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • Mayank Kapoor Department of Medicine, AIIMS, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India
  • Bharat B. Kapoor Department of Anesthesia and ICU, GMC Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • Sharda Kapoor Former Divisional Nodal Officer, RBSK Jammu Division, Jammu and Kashmir, India



Benign breast disease, Breast Lump, Clinical and pathological correlation, Fibroadenoma


Background: Benign breast diseases are a common problem presenting in a day to day surgical practice. A combination of three tests i.e. clinical examination, radiological imaging and pathological examination is commonly used to accurately diagnose breast diseases. This study was aimed to know the clinico-pathological correlation in diagnosing benign breast diseases in women.

Methods: A study of 30 female patients of benign breast disease was conducted by clinical examination and comparing its accuracy with the pathological findings.

Results: The highest incidence of benign breast diseases was in the age group of 30-39 years (33.3%). The most common presenting symptom was lump (53.3%) in the breast. The most common quadrant involved was the upper outer quadrant (60%). Fibroadenoma (53.3%) was the most common lesion in this study. The clinical examination in cases of fibroadenoma had sensitivity and specificity of 87.5 % and 92.8% respectively. In cases of fibrocystic disease, clinical examination had sensitivity and specificity of 85.7 % and 91.3% respectively.

Conclusions: Overall clinical breast examination had a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 98% in this study. Hence, combination of all three diagnostic modalities i.e. clinical, radiological and pathological examination should be used. But in rural areas where radiological and pathological facilities are not available, clinical examination can also give us a fair amount of idea in diagnosing benign breast diseases.


Hughes LE. Benign breast disorders- introduction: fibrocystic disease? nondisease? Or ANDI? World J Surg. 1989;13:667-8.

Sickles EA. Detection and diagnosis of breast cancer with mammography. Perspect Radiol. 1988;1:36-65.

Miltenburg DM, Speights VO Jr. Benign breast disease. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2008;35:285-300.

Hermansen C, Skovgaard Poulsen H, Jensen J, Langfeldt B, Steenskov V, Frederiksen P, et al. Diagnostic reliability of combined physical examination, mammography, and fine-needle puncture (triple-test) in breast tumors. A prospective study. Cancer. 1987;60:1866-71.

Jabbo NS, Jassim HA. Pattern of benign female breast disease in AI-Yarmouk teaching hospital. MMJ. 2010;9:21-4.

Bartow SA, Pathak DR, Black WC. Prevalence of benign, atypical and malignant breast lesions in populations at different risk for breast cancer. A forensic autopsy study. Cancer. 1987;60:2751-60.

London SJ, Connolly JL, Schnitt SJ. A prospective study of benign breast disease and the risk of breast cancer. JAMA. 1992;267:941-44.

McDivitt RW, Stevens JA, Lee NC. Histologic types of benign breast disease and the risk for breast cancer. Cancer. 1992;69:1408-14.

Onukak EE, Cederquist RA. BBD in non-western populations: Part III - BBD in North Nigeria. WJS. 1989;13(6):750-52.

Gupta JC. Breast lumps in Jabalpur area. Ind J Surg. 1983;5:268-73.

Iyer SP. Epidemiology of benign breast diseases in females of childbearing age group. Bombay Hosp J. 2000;42:10.

Rangabhashyam N, Gnanaprakasm D, Krishnaraj B. Spectrum of benign breast lesions in Madras. J Roy Coll Surg Edinb. 1983;28:369-73.

Tiwari P, Tiwari M. The current scenario of benign breast diseases in rural India. A clinicopathological study. JEMDS. 2013;2(27):4933-7.

Mima MBS, Keshori P, Simon D. A clinico-pathological study on benign breast diseases. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013;7(3):503-6.

Uma H, Harsh M. Fine needle aspiration as a diagnostic tool in breast lesion. Indian J Surg. 2000;62(2):125-8.

Abdel-Hadi, Abdel-Hamid GF, Abdel-Razek N. Should fine needle aspiration cytology be the first-choice diagnostic modality for assessment of all non-palpable breast lesions? The experience of a breast screening centre in Alexandria, Egypt. Breast Canc Res Treat. 2010;123(1):1-8.






Original Research Articles