Histomorphological analysis of placental changes of pre-eclampsia patients in a tertiary care hospital of Puducherry, India

Rupal Samal, Anandraj Vaithy K., S. Sowmya


Background: Placenta is a dynamic tissue synthesized physiologically to serve as a nutrient source for developing fetus it is exposed to several changes in reaction to many toxemic conditions associated with pregnancies. Studies had proved that placental changes observed on histomorphology is directly proportional to reaction to hemodynamic compensatory mechanisms, thereby aiding the obstetricians to manage the sequelae of complications. Objective of this study was to study the placental histomorphology in pregnancies associated with pre-eclampsia and to quantitate the observed placental changes.

Methods: The study comprised on 101 placental specimens obtained from department of obstetrics and gynecology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Pondicherry. Toxemia of pregnancies were divided into mild, severe preeclampsia and eclampsia based on blood pressure. The 101 cases were divided as 4 groups: Group 1 (control group); Group 2 (mild preeclampsia); Group 3 (severe preeclampsia); Group 4 (eclampsia).

Results: Among the 101 cases, 38 placentas were from uncomplicated full-term deliveries which constitutes the control group. The rest 63 placenta were from toxemia of pregnancies which constitutes the study group.

Conclusions: The incidence of toxemic pregnancies and pre-eclamptic cases are on higher margin than assumed. Histomorphology examination of placenta plays a vital role in assessing etiopathogenesis and mechanism of toxemic pregnancies. This aids the obstetrician to further manage subsequent sequelae and fix the complication to significant proportion.


Histopathological changes, Placental changes, Pre-eclampsia, Toxemia

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