Pattern and risk factors of non-fistulous urinary incontinence among gynaecological clinic attendees in a Nigeria tertiary health institution


  • Charles O. Njoku Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
  • Amarachukwu N. Njoku Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria
  • Cajethan I. Emechebe Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
  • Andrew E. Okpe Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
  • Christopher I. Iklaki Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria



Prevalence, Risk factors, Types, Urinary incontinence


Background: Urinary incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine. It is rarely disclosed by the patients and usually under-reported. Objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, pattern and risk factors of non-fistulous urinary incontinence among women attending gynaecological clinics in Calabar, Nigeria.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 658 women attending gynecological clinic from June 2018 to June 2019. English version of International consultation on incontinence questionnaire-urinary incontinence-short form (ICIQ-UI-SF) was used to obtain data. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 22.

Results: The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 16.1%. Stress incontinence was the commonest of urinary incontinence (73.3%), other types were urge incontinence (17.2%) and mixed incontinence (9.5%). Independent risk factors for urinary incontinence were 40 years and above (AOR = 5.610; p<0.001), parity ≥3 (AOR = 4.454; p<0.001), lower educational level (primary) (AOR = 2.588; p<0.001), vaginal/instrumental deliveries (AOR = 4.358; p<0.001), carrying heavy load (AOR = 3.688; p<0.001) and farming (AOR = 3.510; p<0.001).

Conclusions: Non-fistulous urinary incontinence is common among women in our environment. Stress urinary incontinence was the most common type. Advanced age, higher parity, vaginal and instrumental deliveries and farming were independent risk factors for urinary incontinence.


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