DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20202312

Eclampsia: a comparative study in a tertiary hospital setting in South-South Region of Nigeria

Eugene M. Ikeanyi, Isaac J. Abasi

Abstract


Background: Eclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality often in settings of poor health seeking behaviour and services. Objective of this study was to determine the incidence, investigate the risk factors, obstetric outcomes and suggest ways of improving the impact of eclampsia.

Methods: An analytical observational study on consecutive cases of eclampsia managed in a tertiary hospital setting from 2014 to 2019. For each case of eclampsia recruited the next gestational hypertensive and normotensive cases managed in the period were recruited to serve as controls. Computer statistical software, Chi square for test of associations were used for analysis with statistical significance set at p<0.05.

Results: Among 3625 deliveries within the study period were 57 cases of eclampsia; an incidence of 1.57%. Most (74.4%) were antepartum eclampsia. Majority of the eclamptic mothers were unbooked (81.4%), of lower social class (86.0%), poorly educated (81.4%) and nulliparous (58.1%). Eclamptic mothers were more likely to be youth ≤24 years (39.5%), teenagers (25.6%), and unmarried. Twenty-four (55.8%) had abdominal delivery, anaemia (23.3%) and were transfused. Three women died from eclampsia; a case fatality of 6.98%. Twenty-four (55.8%) neonates were preterm, low birth weight (48.8%), intrauterine growth restriction (25.6%), special care baby unit admission (32.6%) and perinatal mortality 13 (30.2%).

Conclusions: Eclampsia is still an un-mitigating malady in this study settings with increased maternal and perinatal complications. Nulliparity, low social status, young age and lack of prenatal care appeared significant risk factors. Quality prenatal care, early detection and management of pre-eclampsia will mitigate eclampsia occurrence and severity. Women empowerment is proffered.


Keywords


Eclampsia, Incidence, Maternal, Nigeria, Outcome, Perinatal, Risk factors

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