A study of maternal serum calcium and serum magnesium levels in pre-eclamptic and normotensive pregnancies


  • Pranshi Gupta Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tirath Ram Shah Charitable Hospital, New Delhi, India




Hypertensive disorder in pregnancy, Pre-eclampsia, Serum calcium, Serum magnesium


Background: Hypertensive disorders are major factors responsible for morbidity and mortality in pregnancy and pre-eclampsia is the leading cause. The etiopathology of pre-eclampsia is not known even after significant research done on it. A strong strategy in its management is to try to reduce the incidence and severity by predicting its occurrence. In this study, the effect of serum calcium and serum magnesium levels is being investigated with occurrence pre-eclampsia.

Methods: Total 120 pregnant patients attending Tirath Ram Shah Hospital were included in the study. They were divided into two groups namely normotensive and hypertensive of 60 each. The serum calcium and serum magnesium levels were estimated and the correlation of these levels was studied with the pre-eclampsia related factors. The data was analysed by application of statistical test of significance.

Results: Mean serum calcium level in the normotensive group was 10.119±1.27 mg/dl while mean serum calcium level in the hypertensive group was 9.461±1.164. Mean serum magnesium level in the normotensive women in the study was 1.979±0.405 mg/dl. In the hypertensive women, mean serum magnesium level was 1.723±0.414 mg/dl.

Conclusions: This study shows that low levels of calcium and magnesium are found in serum of pre-eclampsia patients as compared to normotensive cases of the study population. The severity of pre-eclampsia is inversely proportional to the levels of serum calcium and magnesium.


Bahadoran P, Zendehdel M, Movahedian A, Zahraee RH. The relationship between serum zinc level and preeclampsia. Iranian J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2010;15(3):120.

Villar J, Betran A, Gulmezoglu M. Epidemiological basis for the planning of maternal health services. WHO/RHR. 2001;111:298-302.

Khan KS, Wojdyla D, Say L, Gülmezoglu AM, V an Look PF. WHO analysis of causes of maternal death: a systematic review. Lancet. 2006;367(9516):1066-74.

Maternal Mortality, World Health Organisation fact sheet, November; 2016;3(4):89-93.

Maynard SE, Karumanchi SA. Angiogenic factors and preeclampsia. Paper presented at: Seminars in Nephrology. 2011;9:48-53.

Hofmeyr GJ, Duley L, Atallah A. Dietary calcium supplementation for prevention of pre-eclampsia and related problems: a systematic review and commentary. BJOG. 2007;114:933-43.

Chaurasia PP, Jadav PA, Jasani JH. Changes in serum calcium and serum magnesium level in preeclampsia vs normal pregnancy. Int J Biomed Adv Res. 2012;3:511-3.

Onyegbule OA, Meludu SC, Dioka CE, Udigwe GO, Udo JN, Ezidighoh AN, et al. Comparison of serum levels of calcium and magnesium among preeclamptics and normotensive pregnant women at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria. Int J Res Med Sci. 2014;2:404-8.

Enaruna NO, Ande A, Okpere EE. Clinical significance of low serum magnesium in pregnant women attending the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Niger J Clin Pract. 2013;16:448-53.

Cunningham FG. Hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. In: Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, Hauth JC, Gilstre PL, W enstrom KD, editors. Textbook of Williams Obstetrics. 22nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005:761-808.

Ugwuja EI, Famurewa AC, Ikaraoha CI. Comparison of serum calcium and magnesium between preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant Nigerian women in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2016;6(1):33-7.

Bandebuche S, Sagade B, Sontakke A. Serum magnesium in pregnancy induced hypertension. Int J Res Med Sci. 2013;1:413-6.

Darkwa EO, Antwi-Boasiako C, Djagbletey R, Owoo C, Obed S, Sottie D. Serum magnesium and calcium in preeclampsia: a comparative study at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Integrated Blood Pressure Control. 2017;10:9.

Deshpande HG, Madkar CS, Bobe A, Nene V. Comparative study of serum calcium and serum magnesium levels in patients of preeclampsia and normotensive patients. Indian J Obstet Gynecol Res. 2018;5(4):465-70.

Moholkar AP, Bankar MP, Pujari KN, Jadkar SP. Serum calcium and magnesium levels in preeclampsia. IJPBS. 2014;4(3):42-5.

Roy HL, Nargis S, Rahman MM, Hossain MS, Amin MR, Majumder M, et al. Evaluation of Serum Calcium Levels in Pre-eclampsia. Medicine Today. 2018;30(2):57-60.

Pairu J, Triveni GS, Manohar A. The study of serum calcium and serum magnesium in pregnancy induced hypertension and normal pregnancy. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2015;4(1):30-4.

Vafaei H, Dalili M, Hashemi SA. Serum concentration of calcium, magnesium and zinc in normotensive versus preeclampsia pregnant women: A descriptive study in women of Kerman province of Iran. Iranian J Reprod Med. 2015;13(1):23.






Original Research Articles