DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20160855
Published: 2016-12-27

Prevalence and predictors of metabolic syndrome among women above 35 years of age: a cross sectional study from northern India

Era Claudius, Kavita Mandrelle, Mary John, Shavinder Singh

Abstract


Background: In India, as more and more people are adopting sedentary lifestyle the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of risk factors for future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. The objectives of the study was to determine prevalence of metabolic syndrome among women above age of 35 years in northern India attending a gynecological outpatient department of a tertiary hospital and to find out predictors of metabolic syndrome.

Methods: Premenopausal and postmenopausal women above 35 years of age attending gynecological outpatient department were screened for the presence of metabolic syndrome, according to the criteria of modified NCEP-ATP III (National Cholesterol Education Program). Data was collected and analyzed. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 49.3% among women above 35 years of age. In the logistic regression analysis it is found that body mass index and menopausal status were two variables which significantly affected occurrence of metabolic syndrome.

Conclusions: The present study shows a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst women above 35 years of age. The prevalence was higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. In logistic regression analysis it was found that menopause and body mass index are independent predictors of metabolic syndrome.

Keywords


MS, Menopause, NCEP-ATP III

Full Text:

PDF

References


Upadhyay RP. An overview of the burden of non-communicable diseases in India. Iranian journal of public health. 2012;41(3):1-8.

Lloyd-Jones D, Adams R, Carnethon M, De Simone G, Ferguson TB, Flegal K, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2009 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation. 2009;119(3):480-6.

Carr MC. The emergence of the metabolic syndrome with menopause. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2003;88(6):2404-11.

Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association. 2001;285(19):2486-97.

Prasad DS, Kabir Z, Dash AK, Das BC. Prevalence and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in Asian Indians: A community study from urban Eastern India. Journal of cardiovascular disease research. 2012;3(3):204-11.

Pandey S, Srinivas M, Agashe S, Joshi J, Galvankar P, Prakasam CP, et al. Menopause and metabolic syndrome: A study of 498 urban women from western India. Journal of mid-life health. 2010;1(2):63-9.

Gude D. Multiparity: A double-edged blessing of metabolic syndrome along with children. Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 2012;16(1):144-5.

Mousavi E, Gharipour M, Tavassoli A, Sadri GH, Sarrafzadegan N. Multiparity and risk of metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009;7(6):519-24.

Akter S, Jesmin S, Rahman MM, Islam MM, Khatun MT, Yamaguchi N, et al. Higher Gravidity and Parity Are Associated with Increased Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Rural Bangladeshi Women. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(8):e68319.

Jesmin S, Islam AM, Akter S, Islam MM, Sultana SN, Yamaguchi N, et al. Metabolic syndrome among pre- and post-menopausal rural women in Bangladesh: result from a population-based study. BMC Res Notes. 2013;6:157.

Janssen I, Powell LH, Crawford S, Lasley B, Sutton-Tyrrell K. Menopause and the metabolic syndrome: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(14):1568-75.

Ben Ali S, Belfki-Benali H, Aounallah-Skhiri H, Traissac P, Maire B, Delpeuch F, et al. Menopause and Metabolic Syndrome in Tunisian Women. BioMed Research International. 2014;2014:7.

Eshtiaghi R, Esteghamati A, Nakhjavani M. Menopause is an independent predictor of metabolic syndrome in Iranian women. Maturitas. 2010;65(3):262-6.

Liang H, Chen X, Chen Q, Wang Y, Wu X, Li Y, et al. The metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal women in rural Canton: prevalence, associated factors, and the optimal obesity and atherogenic indices. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e74121.

Sakurai M, Takamura T, Miura K, Kaneko S, Nakagawa H. BMI may be better than waist circumference for defining metabolic syndrome in Japanese women. Diabetes care. 2008;31(3):e12.

Bener A, Yousafzai MT, Darwish S, Al-Hamaq AO, Nasralla EA, Abdul-Ghani M. Obesity index that better predict metabolic syndrome: body mass index, waist circumference, waist hip ratio, or waist height ratio. J Obes. 2013;2013:269038.