Prevalence of gynecological diseases in postmenopausal women in tertiary care hospital in Chengalpattu district

S. Shwetha, S. N. S. Minnalkodi, Geetha Prasad


Background: Menopause is a biological event characterized by the complexity of factors. On an average one-third of the women’s life consists of the post-menopause years, and health care programs for women do not address concerns beyond reproductive ages. The aim of this study was to describe the magnitude of menopause-related symptoms, the pattern of health care seeking, and associated factors. To assess the prevalence of gynecological disease in post-menopausal women.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center - obstetrics and gynecology OPD. Over a period, months in the year 2019. Stages of reproductive aging workshop (STRAW) revised criteria and nomenclature are used for the ascertainment of menopause and inclusion of the women in the study. It provided a comprehensive basis for staging since there were more complexities on ascertainment of menopause explained. The STRAW criteria are considered as the gold standard for assessing menopausal stages.

Results: A total of 600 participants were included in the study. The proportion of women who had at least one menopause-related symptom was 95.95 (95% CI 93.73-97.54) and 58.3% of women had severe symptoms. Severities of symptoms in psychological, physical, vasomotor, and sexual domains were 56.7%, 70.5%, 49.3%, and 10.2% respectively. Premature menopause (p<0.016), induced nature of menopause (p<0.031), dyslipidemia (p<0.006) and other medical condition (p<0.003) were associated with severity of menopausal related symptoms.

Conclusions: A high proportion of women are affected by menopause-related symptoms. Care seeking for all symptoms is not uniform, indicative of a lack of knowledge about the treatable nature of many of these symptoms. Sensitization of both women and the health care system may serve to address this issue of menopause-related symptoms and the possibility of treatment for these.


Cardiovascular disease, Diabetes mellitus, Final menstrual period, Green climacteric scale

Full Text:



Broker SA, Venugopalan PP, Bhat SN. Study of menopausal symptoms, and perceptions about menopause among women at a rural community in Kerala. J Midlife Health. 2013;4:182-7.

Gandhi AB, Shukla AKR. Evaluation of BMD of women above 40 years of age. J Obstet Gynecol India. 2005;55(3):265-7.

Geukes M, van Aalst MP, Nauta MC, Oosterhof H. The impact of menopausal symptoms on workability: menopause. The J North Am Menopause Society. 2012;19(3):278-82.

Greene JG. Constructing a standard climacteric scale. Maturitas. 1998;29(1):25-8.

Grigoriou V, Augoulea A, Armeni E, Rizos D, Alexandrou A, Dendrinos S, et al. Prevalence of vasomotor, psychological, psychosomatic and sexual symptoms in perimenopausal and recently postmenopausal Greek women: association with demographic, life-style and hormonal factors. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013;29(2):125-8.

Hilditch JR, Lewis J, Peter A, van Maris B, Ross A, Franssen E, et al. A menopause-specific quality of life questionnaire: development and psychometric properties. Maturitas. 1996;24:161-75.

Ishizuka B, Kudo Y, Tango T. Cross-sectional community survey of menopause symptoms among Japanese women. Maturitas. 2001;61(3):260-7.

Janssen I. Menopause and the metabolic syndrome. The study of women‘s health across the Nation. Arch Internal Med. 2008;168(14):1568.

Jaspers L, Daan NM, Van Dijk GM, Gazibara T, Muka T, et al. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: a conceptual framework for healthy menopause. Maturitas. 2015;81(1):93-8.

Kakkar V, Kaur D, Chopra K, Kaur A, Kaur IP. Assessment of the variation in menopausal symptoms with age, education and working/non-working status in north-Indian sub population using menopause rating scale (MRS). Maturitas. 2007;57(3):306-14.

Kaufert PA. The social and cultural context of menopause. Maturitas. 1996;23(2):169-80.

Kaulagekar A. Age of menopause and menopausal symptoms among urban women in Pune, Maharashtra. J Obstet Gynecol India. 2011;61:323-6.

Khan S, Shukla MK, Priya N, Ansari MA. Health seeking behaviour among post-menopausal women: a knowledge, attitude and practices study. Inter J Comm Med Pub Health. 2016;3(7):1777.

Kulkarni P, Rani BS, Kumar DS, Manjunath R. Burgeoning menopausal symptoms: An urgent public health concern. J Mid-life Health. 2016;7(2):83.

Mishra S. Menopausal transition and postmenopausal health problems: a review on its bio-cultural perspectives. Health. 2011;3(4):233-7.

Lejsková M, Alušík Š, Suchánek M, ŽŽecová S, Piťťha J. Menopause: clustering of metabolic syndrome components and population changes in insulin resistance. Climacteric. 2011;14(1):83-91.