The relation between active smoking and colposcopical and cytological findings in the cervix uteri

Muhad A. Ali, Safa K. Salman, Rana M. Issa


Background: All types of smoking have been associated with cervical neoplasia, and the long-term of use tobacco products and intensity of smoking could influence cervical carcinogenesis. The aim of this study is to identify the association between smoking and the presence of colposcopical and cytological abnormalities in cervix uteri.

Methods: An observational case-control study was applied on 100 patients to investigate this relationship. The patients were divided into two groups, smokers’ group (70) cases and nonsmokers’ group (30) cases. All of the patients have been submitted to colposcopy and Papanicolaou smear. Comparison of colposcopic and cellular findings between both groups was done.

Results: Authors found that there was a significance difference in the rate of abnormal colposcopical findings between two groups. This rate in smokers’ sample was 45.7% and in the second was 26.7% with p-value=0.04. Additionally, there was no significance difference in the rate of abnormal cytological findings. This rate in smokers’ group was 32.9% whereas in the second was 23.4% with p-value=0.6.

Conclusions: This study data suggests that smoking increases abnormalities in papanicolaou smear and colposcopy.


Cervical cancer, Colposcopy, Papanicolaou smear, Smoking

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