DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20204337

Understanding pelvic floor in women

Rajni Mittal, Gayatri Rath, R. N. Sahai, Mahima Aggarwal

Abstract


Change from quadruped to erect posture has resulted in changes in the human pelvis. This has resulted in pelvis supporting the abdominal viscera. The bony pelvis is deficient on inferior aspect. Muscles covered by fascia on superior and inferior aspect. A good knowledge of pelvic floor is very basic and mandatory for any gynecologist as pelvic floor is crucial to support the pelvic organs and is required to maintain urinary and fecal continence.


Keywords


Pelvic floor, Levator ani, Perineal membrane

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ashton-Miller JA, Delancy JOL. Functional Anatomy of the Female Pelvic Floor Ann. NY Acad Sci. 2007;1101:266-96.

Paramore RH. The uterus as a floating organ. In The Statics of the female pelvic viscera. 1918, ed 12. HK Lewis and Company. London.

Olsen AL, Smith VJ, Bergstrom JO, Colling JC, Clark AL. Epidemiology of surgically managed pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;89(4):501-6.

Abitbol MM. Evolution of the ischial spine and of the pelvic floor in the hominoidea. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1988;75:53-67.

Rosenberg K, Trevathan W. Birth, Obstetrics and human evolution. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2002;109:1199-206.

Jones Howard W, Rock John A. Te Linde’s Operative Gynecology. Wolter Kluwer. 11th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW). 2015.

Wilson D. Tail reduction in Macaca. In. Tuttle R (ed) The functional and evolutionary biology of primates. Aldine-Atherton, Chicago. 1972;249-61.

Ulfelder H. The mechanism of pelvic support in women: deductions from a study of the comparative anatomy and physiology of the structures involved. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1956;72:856-64.

Wilson PM. Understanding the pelvic floor. SA Med J. 1973;47:1150-67.

Drake RL, Vogl AW, Mitchell A. Gray's anatomy for students. Elsevier. Third edition. Pelvis and perineum. 2015;216-9.

Moore KL, Dalley AF, Agur AMR. Clinically oriented anatomy, Wolters Kluwer/ Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 6th ed. Pelvis and perineum: 339-43.

Halban J, Tandler I. Anatomie und aetiologie der genital prolapse beim weibe. Wilhelm braumüller; wien: 1907.

Berglas B, Rubin IC. Study of the supportive structures of the uterus by levator myography. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1953;97:677-92.

Marieb E. Human Anatomy and Physiology: books a la carte edition. Benjamin-cummings.6thed. Menlo Park, CA. 2004.

Taverner D. An electromyographic study of the normal function of the external anal sphincter and pelvic diaphragm. Dis Colon Rectum. 1959;2;153-60.

Smith ARB, Hosker GL, Warrell DW. The role of pudendal nerve damage in the aetiology of genuine stress incontinence in women. Brit J Obstet Gynaecol. 1989;96:29-32.

Enhorning, G. Simultaneous recording of intravesical and intra-urethral pressure. Acta Chir Scand. 1961;276:1-68.

Kim KJ, Ashton-Miller JA, Strohbehn K, DeLancey JO, Schultz AB. The vesico-urethral pressuregram analysis of urethral function under stress. J Biomech. 1997;30:19-25.

International Continence Society. Faecal incontinence - basics fact sheets. 2013.

Cundiff GW, Azziz R, Bristow RE. Te linde's atlas of Gynecologic Surgery. Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 2013;217-9.

Grigorescu BA, Lazarou G, Olson TR. Innervation of the levator ani muscles: description of the nerve branches to the pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, and puborectalis muscles. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2008;19(1):107-16.

Chaitow L, Delany J. Clinical application of neuromuscular techniques. Churchill Livingstone. 2011;2.

Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT). Terminologia anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology. 1988.

Bø K, Talseth T. Long-term effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise 5 years after cessation of organized training. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;87:261-5.

Parks AG, Porter NH, Melzak J. Experimental study of the reflex mechanism controlling muscles of floor. Dis Colon Rectum. 1962;5:407-14.

Miller JM, Ashton-miller JA, Delancey JOL. A pelvic muscle precontraction can reduce cough-related urine loss in selected women with mild sui. J Am Geriatr. 1998;46:870-4.